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HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE STORY OF MATARAM KINGDOM | Mataram kingdom in Central Java with its core area called Mataram Bhumi. The area is surrounded by mountains and hills, such as Serayu Mountains, Mount Prau, Mount Sindoro, Mountain Cleft, Mount Ungaran, Merbabu, Mount Merapi, Kendang Mountains, Mount Lawu, Mount Sewu, Gunung Kidul. The area is also drained many rivers, including River Bogowonto, the Progo River, River Elo, and the largest dalah Solo River. The main livelihood of the people of the Ancient Mataram is agriculture, while trade issues received less attention.

1. Source of History
Evidence of the establishment of Sanjaya dynasty known through inscriptions Canggal (Kedu region), Inscription Billiton, the Book of Carita Parahyangan.

Canggal Inscription (732 AD)
The inscription was made in the reign of King Sanjaya associated with the establishment of a Linga. The phallus is a symbol of Lord Shiva. So religion is a homage to Shiva the Hindu religion.

Balitung Inscription (907 AD)
This is a copper inscription inscriptions issued by King Diah Balitung. In the inscription mentioned the name of the king who had ruled the kingdom of Sanjaya dynasty.

Book Carita Parahyangan
In this case say about matters of the kings of Sanjaya.

2. Political Life
Mataram kingdom was ruled by hereditary kings of the Sanjaya Dynasty. The kings who once ruled the kingdom of Mataram are:

Rakai Mataram The Queen Sanjaya
According Canggal Inscription (732 AD), King Sanjaya founded the kingdom of Mataram from Sanjaya Dynasty. Sanjaya king ruled with a very fair and wise so that people life guaranteed safe and secure.

Sanjaya king died about the middle of the 8th century AD He was replaced by the Rakai Panangkaran. Successive replacement of Rakai Rakai Panangkaran is Garung Horse and Rakai.

Sri Maharaja Rakai Pikatan
After the death Garung Rakai, Rakai Pikatan ascended the throne. To carry out his goal to conquer the whole of Central Java, Rakai Pikatan have to deal with the kingdom during the dynasty which was ruled by King Balaputra Gods. Because of the power exceeds the power of the kingdom of Mataram dynasty, the road taken Rakai Pikatan is proposed to Princess of the Kingdom dynasty named Pramodhawardani. Pramodhawardani should rule over the kingdom dynasty, but he handed over his throne to Balaputra Gods.

Rakai Pikatan Pramodhawardani urged to want to pull back from Balaputra Gods throne, so the civil war erupted. In that war, the King of Gods Balaputra can be defeated and fled to the Srivijaya kingdom. Thus, the ideals of Rakai Pikatan for control of Central Java region is reached.

Dynasty Syailendra
In the mid-eighth century AD in southern Central Java, namely in the area Bagelan and Yogyakarta, a king of the dynasty ruling dynasty. In the reign of King Balaputra Gods, it is known that the center position of the kingdom dynasty located in a mountainous area in the south based on evidence discovered relics of the palace of Queen Boko.

1. Source of History
Inscriptions have been found including the following:

Kalasan Inscription (778 AD)
This inscription mentions a king of the dynasty that succeeded in pointing Rakai Syailendra Panangkaran to erect a building sacred to the goddess Tara, and a Bihara for pastors. Rakai Panangkaran Kalasan finally presented to the Sanggha Buddhist village.

Kelurak Inscription (782 AD) in the Prambanan
This inscription mentions about the making of statues of Manjusri who embodies the Buddha, Vishnu, and Sanggha, which can be equated with Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva. The inscription also mentions the name of the king who ruled at that time named King Indra.

Ratu Boko · Inscription (856 AD)
This inscription mentions the defeat of King Balaputra Gods in the civil war against his brother Pramodhawardani and subsequently fled to the Srivijaya.

Nalanda Inscription (860 AD)
This inscription mentions about the origins of King Balaputra Gods. Mentioned that Balaputra god is the son of King Samarottungga and grandson of King Indra (Royal dynasty in Central Java). In addition to the inscriptions mentioned above, there are also relics of Buddhist temples such as Borobudur, Mendut, Pawon, Kalasan, Sari, Sewu, and other temples are smaller.

2. Political Life
At the end of the 8th century AD Sanjaya Dynasty driven by another dynasty, that dynasty dynasty. This event occurs when the Sanjaya Dynasty was ruled by the Rakai Panangkaran. This was evidenced by the inscription Kalasan meneybutkan that Rakai Panangkaran Vishnu had orders from the King to establish Kalasan (Buddhist Temple).

Although the position of the kings of the dynasty had been pressured by Sanjaya dynasty dynasty, the kings of the dynasty sanjaya still recognized position as a respected king. Only be subject to the kings of dynasty as the supreme authority over all of Mataram. Based on the inscriptions have been found to be known to the kings who ruled the dynasty dynasty, among them:

King Indra
Syailendra running political dynasty in the expansion of the reign of King Indra. Expansion of this region dtujukan to master the areas around the Strait of Malacca. Furthermore, the strengthening influence of the Srivijaya dynasty rule is because run a political marriage of King Indra. Indra the king named his son marry the daughter of the King of Srivijaya Samarottungga.

King Samarottungga
Substitute King Indra named Samarottungga. In the days of his power built the Borobudur temple. But before the construction of the Borobudur Temple is completed, the King Samarottungga died and was succeeded by his son named Balaputra god who is the son of the concubine.

3. Social Life
Social life of the kingdom dynasty, has been regularly interpreted. This is seen through the way of making the temple the people who use power cooperate. In addition, the manufacture of this temple shows how the people obey and cult king.

4. Cultural life
Many left the royal dynasty temple buildings are very grand and great value, both in terms of culture, community life and development of the kingdom. The temples are famous as mentioned above is Mendut Pawon, Borobudur, Kalasan, Sari, and Sewu.

The name Borobudur is estimated to come from the name of Bhumi Sambharabudhara. Sambhara Bhumi means hill or mountain and budhara means king. So the meaning of the name is King Mountain, which is synonymous with dynasty. Borobudur has a system that is divided into three parts, namely Kamadhatu, Rupadhatu, and Arupadhatu.

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