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The Entry of Chinese People (Tionghoa)


 

HISTORY OF CULTURE | The Entry of Chinese People (Tionghoa) | Some of the oldest records written by the clergy, such as Fa Hien in the 4th century and the I Ching in the 7th century. Fa Hien reported a kingdom in Java ("To lo mo") and the I Ching would like to come to India to study Buddhism and stop in the archipelago to study Sanskrit in advance. In Java he sit under a man named Jñânabhadra.

With the development of kingdoms in the archipelago, Chinese immigrants began to arrive, mainly for trade purposes. In Javanese inscriptions of Chinese people was mentioned as a foreign citizen residing in addition to ethnic names of the archipelago, the mainland of Southeast Asia and India anakbenua. In a bronze inscriptions 860 years of East Java is called a term, the Chinese spokesman, who hooked up with the management office of Chinese people who live there. Several motifs in the reliefs Sewu allegedly also received the influence of motives Chinese silk fabric.

Note Ma Huan, when participating in Cheng Ho's expedition, calling it clear that the Chinese Muslim traders inhabit the capital and port cities of Majapahit (15th century) and form one of the three components of the kingdom's population. Cheng Ho's expedition also left traces in Semarang, when people are both, Wang Jinghong, pain and forcing the troupe anchored Simongan (now part of the city of Semarang). Wang then settled for not being able to follow the next expedition. He and his followers be one of the forerunner of Chinese citizens Semarang. Wang Zheng perpetuate into a statue (called "Mbah Ledakar Juragan Dampo Awang Sam Po Kong"), as well as Sam Po Kong temple building or building stone. In this complex are also buried Wang and nicknamed "Mbah Dampo Awang helmsman".

Some historians also suggest that Raden Patah, the founder of the Sultanate of Demak, have Chinese blood in addition to the descendants of Majapahit. Some guardians propagator of Islam in Java also has Chinese blood, although they embraced Islam and were no longer actively practicing the Chinese culture.

Tina Kite Book Sunda Parahyang mention the arrival of the Chinese party to the estuary Ci Sadane (now Teluknaga) in 1407, in the area was still under the rule of the Kingdom of Sunda (Pajajaran). Its leader is Halung and stranded before reaching their destination in Kalapa.

Colonial Era
In colonial times, the Dutch had raised some community leaders with the title Captain of China, which are required to be loyal and liaison between the government and the Chinese community. Some of them turned out to also have contributed to the general public, such as So Beng Beng Gan Kong and Phoa who built the canal in Batavia. In Yogyakarta, Captain Tan Djin Sing had become regent of Yogyakarta.

The massacre of the Chinese on October 9, 1740 in Batavia
Actually, there are also groups of Chinese who had fought against the Dutch, either alone or together with other ethnic groups. Along ethnic Javanese, Chinese groups fighting against VOC years 1740-1743. In West Kalimantan, the Chinese community joined in the "Republic" Lanfong [citation needed] at war with the Dutch forces in the nineteenth century.

In the course of pre-independence history, several times the ethnic Chinese were targeted mass murder or looting, such as the massacre in Batavia in 1740 and the wartime massacre of Java 1825-1830. Batavia massacre in the birth of the Chinese resistance movement engaged in several cities in Central Java, assisted also by ethnic Javanese. In turn, this resulted in the outbreak of the kingdom of Mataram. Chinese people are no longer allowed to settle in any place. Wijkenstelsel rule creates or Chinatown Chinese settlements in major cities in the Netherlands Indies.

Education
Resurgence of nationalism in the Netherlands Indies is inseparable from developments in the Chinese community. Dated March 17, 1900 formed in Batavia Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) who founded schools, such as in the city of Garut pioneered and founded in 1907 by an entrepreneur of the earth at that time named Lauw O Teng with the two sons named Lauw Tek Hay and Lauw Siang Tek, with the intention that the Chinese could be clever, (later the number reached 54 schools and fruits in 1908 and reached 450 schools in 1934). This initiative was followed by other ethnic groups, such as descendants of Arabs who founded Djamiat-ul Chair THHK modeled. In turn, this awareness of the importance of Java priyayi education for the young generation that formed Budi Utomo.

Economy
Colonial government's target to prevent interaction with the indigenous ethnic Chinese through the rules and Wijkenstelsel passenstelsel it turns creates a concentration of economic activities in urban Chinese. When the economy is the world shifted to the industrial sector, most Chinese people ready to try with the food-beverage business specialties, herbal medicine, home appliances, building materials, spinning, batik, clove and transportation. In 1909 in Buitenzorg (Bogor) SI Trade Islamiyah was established by RA Tirtoadisuryo follow the model of Siang Hwee (Chinese chamber of commerce) which was formed in 1906 in Batavia. Even the establishment of Islamic SI (SI) in Surakarta is inseparable from the influence of an earlier association created by Chinese citizens. The founder of SI, Haji Samanhudi, at the beginning was a member of Sing Kong, please-help community organizations of the Chinese in Surakarta. Samanhudi also later formed the Kong Sing Rekso Rumekso his Javanese.

Movement
Dutch colonial government increasingly worried by Sun Yat-sen proclaimed the Republic of China, in January 1912. Chinese organizations which was originally engaged in socio-cultural field began to lead to politics. The goal is to eliminate discriminatory treatment of Chinese people in the Netherlands Indies in the field of education, legal / judicial, civil status, tax burdens, barriers to movement and residence.

In the implementation of the Ethical Policy, the colonial government tried to promote education, but Chinese citizens are not included in the program. Though the Chinese pay a double tax (income tax and wealth tax). Income tax required of the indigenous people who are not farmers. Property taxes (house, horses, trains, motor vehicles and household appliances) are only charged for Foreign Persons and Eastern Europe (including the ethnic Chinese). Barriers to moving subject for Chinese citizens with a passenstelsel.

At the time of the Youth Pledge, there are a few names from the Chinese group was attended, among others, Tiam Kwee Hong and three other Chinese youth. Sin Po, a Chinese Malay newspapers are also very much to contribute in spreading information that is nationalist. In the 1920s, the daily Sin Po Indonesia pioneered the use of the word as a substitute for native Dutch word inlanders in all publications. This step was followed by many other newspapers. As his debts, all the local press and then replace the word "Tjina" with the word Chinese. Liem Koen Hian in 1931 founded the PTI, the Chinese Party of Indonesia (and not Tjina Party of Indonesia).


Pre Revolutionary Period and Independence
During the revolution of 1945's, Major John Lie who smuggle goods into the Republic of Singapore for the purpose of financing. Houses in Rengasdengklok Djiaw Kie Siong, near Falkirk, was taken over by the Army Defenders of the Homeland (PETA), then the residents moved so as Bung Karno and Bung Hatta can rest after the "cut off" from Jakarta on August 16, 1945. In Business Investigation Agency Preparation of Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI) which formulates UUD'45 ie there are 4 of the Chinese; Liem Koen Hian, Tan Eng Hoa, Oey Tiang Tjoe, Oey Tjong Hauw, and in the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) there is a Chinese namely Drs.Yap Tjwan Bing. Liem Koen Hian, who died in status as a foreign citizen, actually joined the 1945 design. Indonesia Raya songs created by W.R. Supratman, was first published by Sin Po newspaper.

In a physical struggle there are several fighters from among the Chinese, but their names are not many recorded and reported. One of the recognized is Tony Wen, namely those involved in the decline of the Dutch flag at the Hotel Orange Surabaya.

Old Order
In the Old Order, there are several ministers of the Republic of Indonesia of Chinese descent as Oei Tjoe Tat, Ong Eng Die, Siauw Jade Tjhan, etc.. Oei Tjoe Tat even been appointed as one of the Right Hand Ir. Sukarno during Dwikora. At this time the relationship Ir. Sukarno with some figures from the Chinese can be said to be very good. Although there are several in the Old Order's discriminatory policies such as Government Regulation no. 10 of 1959 which prohibits foreigners Chinese for retail trade in areas outside the provincial capital and district. This raises a broad impact on the distribution of goods and eventually became one of the causes of economic slump and the other by the year 1965.

New Order
During the New Order made the application of the provisions of Letter of Proof of Citizenship of the Republic of Indonesia, or more popularly called SBKRI, which are mainly targeted to citizens of Indonesia (WNI) ethnic Chinese and their descendants. Although these provisions are administrative in nature, is essentially the application of SBKRI synonymous with the efforts of Chinese citizens who put in the position of the legal status of citizens are "questionable".

In the New Order of Chinese citizens are also prohibited expression. Since 1967, residents considered to be descendants of foreigners in Indonesia and its position is under the native residents, which indirectly also remove their human rights. Arts barongsai openly, the celebration of Chinese New Year, and prohibited the use of Mandarin, though later it was championed by the Chinese community of Indonesia, especially traditional Chinese medicine community because of the ban will impact at all on the prescription drugs they make that can only be written in Mandarin . They went up to the Supreme Court and Attorney General of Indonesia finally time to give permission on condition that Indonesia Chinese promised not to raise the strength to rebel and overthrow the government of Indonesia.

The only Mandarin language newspaper which published the Daily Indonesia allowed a partial article written in Indonesian. Daily is administered and supervised by the Indonesian military in this regard is the Armed Forces although some Indonesian Chinese are also working there. Chinese traditional religion is prohibited. As a result, Confucianism lost government recognition.

The New Order government argued that the Chinese citizens whose population when it reaches approximately 5 million of the entire people of Indonesia is feared to spread the influence of communism in the country. In fact, the reality says that most of their work as traders, who certainly contrary to what is taught by communism, a very forbidding trade was done.

The Chinese kept out of practical political life. Others prefer to avoid politics for fear of her safety.

At the end of the New Order period, there were racial riots which is the darkest of events for the Indonesian people, especially Chinese people since the unrest led to the downfall of many victims and many of them experienced sexual harassment, looting, violence, and others.

Reformation
Reforms that have been widely rolled out in 1998 led to changes to the lives of Chinese citizens in Indonesia. Although not 100% change is happening, but it is already showing the trend of changing views of government and indigenous people towards the Chinese community. When the New Order era characters, cultural attractions or banned Chinese paraded in public, has now become a common sight for this. In Medan, North Sumatra, for example, are common when using the Hokkien Chinese citizens or Chinese characters displayed in the shop or house. In addition, on Election 2004, presidential and vice presidential candidate Megawati-Hasyim Wahid use Chinese characters in a flyer campaign to attract Chinese citizens.

2 comment:

My Blog said...

oh, thank for informations.

stefani christine said...

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