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Biografhy Of Srivijaya Kingdom


Biografhy Of Srivijaya Kingdom | HISTORY OF CULTURE | The knowledge about the history of Srivijaya in the early newborn of the 20th century AD, when George Coedes write essay titled Le Royaume de Crivijaya in 1918 AD Actually, five years before that, ie in 1913 AD, Kern has published Inscription City Limestone, a relic of Srivijaya inscription found on the island of Bangka. However, at that time, Kern still considers Sriwijaya name listed on the inscription is as the name of a king, because Cri usually used as a designation or title of king. In 1896 AD, the Japanese scholar Takakusu translate the works of I-Tsing, Nan-hai-Kuei-chi-ch'uan fa-nai into English under the title A Record of the Budhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago.


However, in the book there is no name of Srivijaya, which is only Shih-li-fo-shih. From translation City Kapur inscription containing the name of Srivijaya and I-Tsing's work containing the name of Shih-li-fo-shih, Coedes later determined that, is the name of a kingdom of Sriwijaya in South Sumatra. 

Furthermore, Coedes also provides that, where the capital of Srivijaya is Palembang, with rests on the supposition Groeneveldt in the essay, Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca, Compiled from Chinese Sources, which states that, San-fo-ts'I is Palembang. Other sources, namely Beal their opinions in 1886 that, Shih-li-fo-shih is a region located on the shores of the Musi River, near Palembang town now. From this opinion, then emerged a tendency among historians to regard as the center of the kingdom of Sriwijaya in Palembang. 

Other sources that support the existence of Palembang as the center of the kingdom is the Telaga Batu inscription. This inscription plate-shaped stone near pentagon, on top of it there are seven head of a cobra, to form a small bowl with a spout (small mouth place out water) underneath. According to archaeologists, these inscriptions are used for implementation of the ceremonial oath of loyalty and obedience of the official candidates. In the procession, officials sworn in drinking water that flowed into the rock and out through the spout. As a means to persumpahan ceremony, the inscriptions were usually placed in the center of the kingdom. Because it was found in the vicinity of Palembang in 1918 AD, then allegedly was the center of the kingdom of Sriwijaya in Palembang. 

Another clue which states that Palembang was the center of the kingdom was also obtained from the findings of ceramic goods and pottery at the site Gutters Kikim, Cape Rawa, Bukit Siguntang and Kambang Unglen, all in the region of Palembang. Ceramics and pottery is the tool used in everyday life. These findings indicate that, during the first, in Kilkenny there is an ancient settlement. This conjecture is strengthened by the results of aerial photo interpretation in the area west of Palembang city, which describes the forms of ponds and canals. Ponds and canals that form regularly are likely man-made, not the result of natural processes. From the findings of ceramics and the canals, then the archaeologists alleged that Palembang was the center of the kingdom grew stronger. 

As the center of the kingdom, the condition when it is mendesa Palembang (rural), unlike other royal centers found in mainland Southeast Asia, such as in Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar. The main ingredient used to make buildings in the city center of Srivijaya is wood or bamboo that easy to get around it. Therefore, it is easily damaged materials consumed time, there is no remaining buildings can be found again. If anything, the remaining settlements with timber construction can only be found in the swamp or river banks are submerged in water, not in downtown, like in this site Plancu Edge, Batanghari regency, Jambi. There is a building made of brick or stone materials, but only a sacred buildings (religious), as found in Palembang, on the site Gedingsuro, Angsoka Temple, and Mount Siguntang, which is made of brick. Unfortunately, the remaining buildings that are found are only the foundation course. 

Along with the development, more and more data is found regarding the history of Srivijaya. In addition to the City Kapur inscription, also found inscriptions Coral estrus (discovered in 1904 AD), Telaga Batu (found in 1918 AD), Kedukan Hill (found in 1920 AD) Talang Tuo (discovered in 1920 AD) and the New Boom. Among the inscriptions on the top, the inscription Lime City is the oldest, bertarikh 682 AD, tells the story of the sacred journey of Minanga Dapunta Hyang by boat, along with two laksa (20,000) troops and 200 crate supplies, and 1213 foot soldiers. This trip ends at Mukha-p. In these places, then set up Wanua Dapunta Hyang (township) that is named Sriwijaya. 

In the inscriptions Talang Tuo who bertarikh 684 AD, is mentioned about the construction of the park by Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa for all beings, named Sriksetra. In the park, there are trees whose fruits can be eaten.  The data are enriched by Chinese and Arab news. Chinese sources most often cited are the notes I-Tsing. 

He was a Buddhist pilgrim from China who has visited Sriwijaya several times and had resided for some time. Visit I-The first sting was the year 671 AD In her notes mentioned that, while there are more than a thousand Buddhist monks in Sriwijaya. The rules and ceremonies such as Buddhist monks with the rules and rituals performed by Buddhist monks in India. I-Tsing stay for 6 months in Srivijaya to learn Sanskrit, after that, then he went to Nalanda, India. After a long study at Nalanda, I-Tsing back to the Srivijaya in the year 685 and lived for several years to translate Buddhist texts from Sanskrit into Chinese. Other Chinese records mention about Sriwijaya envoy who came regularly to China, which last was in 988 AD 

In another source, namely the Arab records, called Srivijaya Sribuza. Mas'udi, a classical Arab historians write notes about the year 955 AD Srivijaya In the note, described Srivijaya was a great empire, with the army very much. Sriwijaya crops are camphor, aloes wood, clove, sandalwood, nutmeg, cardamom, gambier and several other crops. 

Of the foreign records, we know that the kingdom of Srivijaya is great in his time, with the region and extensive trade relations to Madagascar. A number of other evidence in the form of statues, stupika, as well as other inscriptions increasingly asserted that, in his time the kingdom of Srivijaya is having good communication with merchants and priests in China, India and Arabia. This may only be done by a great empire, influential, and calculated in the region. 

In the 11th century AD, Srivijaya began to decline. In the year 1006 AD, Srivijaya was attacked by Dharmawangsa from East Java. This attack was successfully repulsed, even Sriwijaya able to do a counter-attack and succeeded in destroying the kingdom Dharmawangsa. In the year 1025 AD, Srivijaya had an attack that crippled the kingdom Cola, India. Nevertheless, the attack has not been able to eliminate Srivijaya from the earth. Until the beginning of the 13th century AD, Srivijaya was still standing, though the power and influence has been very much reduced. 

Genealogy 

One way to expand the influence of the kingdom is to conduct a marriage with another kingdom. This is also done by the ruler of Srivijaya. Dapunta Hyang in power since 664 AD, married with Sobakancana, second daughter of the king of the Kingdom of Tarumanegara, Linggawarman. This marriage gave birth to a son who becomes the next king of Srivijaya: Dharma Setu. Dharma Setu later had a daughter named Goddess Tara. This daughter later he wed with Samaratungga, kings of Old Mataram Kingdom from Dynasty dynasty. Goddess of marriage Setu with Samaratungga, then born Bala Putra Dewa who became king in Srivijaya of 833 to 856 AD Here is a list of genealogy of the kings of Srivijaya
  • Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa (Inscription Kedukan Hill 683, Talang Tuo, 684).
  • Cri Indrawarman (news China, 724 years).
  • Rudrawikrama (news China, in 728, 742).
  • Vishnu (inscription Ligor, 775).
  • Maharaja (Arab news, the year 851).
  • Balaputradewa (Nalanda inscription, 860).
  • Cri Udayadityawarman (news China, 960 years).
  • Cri Udayaditya (news China, 962 years).
  • i Cudamaniwarmadewa (news China, in 1003, the inscription of Leiden, 1044).
  • raviyayatunggawarman (inscription Leiden, 1044).
  • Cri Sanggaramawijayatunggawarman (Chola inscription, 1044).
  • Administration Period 

Srivijaya kingdom ruled from the 7th century to early 13th century AD, and reached the golden age in the era of government Balaputra Gods (833-856 AD). Royal setback is related to the entry and spread of Islam in Sumatra, and the emergence of power Singosari and Majapahit in Java. 

Regional Power 

Historically, kerasaan Srivijaya controlled the western part of the archipelago. One of the factors that cause Sriwijaya can master the entire western part of the archipelago is the collapse of the kingdom of Fu-nan in Indochina. Previously, Fu-nan is the only holder of the reins in the territorial waters of the Strait of Malacca. Another factor is that Srivijaya naval force capable of mastering the trade traffic between India and China. With a large fleet strength, Sriwijaya then expand the territory up to the island of Java. In another source said that, Srivijaya power to Brunei on the island of Borneo.

From the inscriptions found in Lime City JK Van der Meulen on Bangka Island in December 1892 AD, obtained clues about the kingdom of Srivijaya that Java is trying to conquer Earth. Although not explained where the region is the Bhumi Java in the inscriptions, some archaeologists believe, that meant that Java Bhumi is the kingdom of Tarumanegara on the North Coast of West Java. Apart from the contents of the inscriptions, Srivijaya empire spread also can be known from inscriptions location Sriwjaya these relics. In the area of Lampung found inscriptions Pasemah Palas, in Jambi is Coral lust, in the Pacific is the City of lime, in Riau have Takus Estuary. All this shows that these areas once controlled by Srivijaya. Other sources have said that, Srivijaya power actually reaches the Philippines. This is evidence that, Srivijaya had controlled most of the archipelago. 

Governance Structure 

The highest authority in the kingdom of Srivijaya held by the king. To become king, there are three requirements are:
  1. Samraj, meaning sovereign over his subjects.
  2. Indratvam, meaning rule as Lord Indra who always gives the welfare of its people.
  3. Ekachattra. Eka means one and chattra means umbrella. This word means capable umbrella (to protect) the entire population.
  4. Equation showing the king with the god Indra in the Srivijaya king has the power that is transcendent. 

Unclear how the structure of government under the king. One aide called explicitly only Senapati who served as military commander. 

Life on Economic, Social, Cultural 
As a huge empire embracing Buddhism, the Sriwijaya has developed a climate conducive to developing the Buddhist religion. In traveling I-Tsing notes mentioned that, at that time, there are a thousand priests in Srivijaya. In his first trip, I-Tsing had resided for six months in Srivijaya for studying Sanskrit. I-Tsing also recommend, if a Chinese pastor wanted to learn to India, you should learn first year or two years in the Fo-shih (Kilkenny), then studied in India. Upon their return from Nalanda, I-Tsing settled in Srivijaya for seven years (688-695 AD) and produced two major works of the T'ang Ta-yu-ku-fa-kao-seng-chuan and Nan-hai chi-Kuei- -nei-chuan-fa (A Record of the Budhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago), which finished writing in the year 692 AD This shows that, Srivijaya was one of the important Buddhist religious center at the time. 

Until the beginning of the 11th century AD, the kingdom of Srivijaya is still the center of Mahayana Buddhism studies. In its relations with India, the kings of Srivijaya build Buddhist sacred buildings in India. This fact is stated in two inscriptions, the inscriptions of King Dewapaladewa of Nalanda, which is thought to have originated from the 9th century AD, and the inscription of King Rajaraja I. numbered from the year 1044 AD and 1046 AD 

The first inscription mentions about King Balaputradewa from Suwarnadwipa (Sriwijaya), who built a monastery, while the second inscription mentions about King Kataha and Srivijaya, Marawijayayottunggawarman who gave gifts to a village dedicated to the Buddha residing in the monastery Cudamaniwarna, Nagipattana, India. 

In the field of trade, the kingdom of Srivijaya has a very good trade relations with merchants from China, India, Arabia and Madagascar. This can be ascertained from the findings of China's currency, ranging from the period of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) to Ming Dynasty (14-17 centuries AD). In connection with the commodities being traded, the Arab news from Ibn al-Fakih (902 AD), Abu Zaid (916 M) and Mas'udi (955 AD) mentions some of them, namely clove, nutmeg, cardamom, pepper, areca nut, wood aloes , sandalwood, camphor, ivory, tin, gold, silver, ebony, Sapan wood, spices, and sea turtles. These goods are purchased by foreign merchants, or bartered with porcelain, cotton and silk fabrics. 

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Source: 

1. Slamet Muljana, Srivijaya, Yogyakarta: LKIS 
2. D.G.E. Hall, History of Southeast Asia. Delhi: National Business. 
3. Indonesia National Encyclopedia 
4. Team University of Riau, History of Riau, Yogyakarta: ideology Nusa Karya 
5. Rakaryan Sukarjaputra, Compass: June 29, 2001 
6. Wikipedia

3 comment:

Nixo Chiipper D'Extreme said...

The Big Of Kingdom In Asia.

fadli said...

Sriwijaya is a big kingdom. an empire in western Indonesia, based in southern Sumatra,,

berita update said...

i like sriwijaya

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