Recent Articles

Map and Arca Srivijaya Inscription


HISTORY OF CULTUREMap and Arca Srivijaya Inscription | News of the kingdom of Srivijaya became known and increasingly popular since the discovery of several inscriptions that are generally derived from the 7th century AD.According to Bambang Budi Utomo archeologists, inscriptions found in the southern Sumatra region / southeast around 31 inscriptions are largely derived from the Srivijaya. Inscriptions from the 7th century AD k numbered 25 pieces.
Regarding its content and siddhayatra persumpahan (holy journey). Most of the inscriptions were found in the region of Palembang today, ie 23 units inscriptions, including inscriptions Kedukan Hill, Gutters Tuwo, Stone Lake, and New Boom.Some inscriptions were, among others.

Inscription Kedukan Bukit
Kedukan Bukit inscription found at the end of 29 November 1920 in the garden pack of H. Jahri, Tatang river, the village at the foot of Bukit, Kedukan Bukit Siguntang that is located in the southwest of Palembang, South Sumatra today. The inscription is identified by a controller Dutch history buff, Batenburg, who then report the findings to the Department of Antiquities (Oudheidkundigen Dienst).
The inscription round-shaped egg is the oldest of the Srivijaya inscription with the year number 604 Saka or 682 AD (Saka year converted to the year AD plus 78 years), made of andesite stone with a length more or less 42 cm and 80 cm circumference . Now, the inscription of ten lines, written with the letter Pallawa, and the Old Malay language is stored in the National Museum Jakarta.

Inscription Gutters Tuwo
Inscription Gutters Tuwo found around the river estuary and the river's edge Sekanak Lambidaro, Gutters Tuwo village (now part of Coconut Gutters District) on 17 November 1920 by LC Westenenk, Dutch officials who served in Palembang.The village is included in Gandus region, west of Palembang. The inscription consists of 14 rows are lettered Pallawa, Old Malay language, and dates to the year 606 Saka (684 M). Inscriptions square (parallelogram) is now also stored in the National Museum Jakarta.

Lake Stone Inscription
Lake Stone inscriptions found in 1935 around Lake Blue Lake, near Sabokingking 2 Ilir, no dates to Palembang. The inscriptions are decorated with the head of this seven-headed cobra consist of 28 lines. According to FM Schnitger this inscription from the 9th century BC or AD-10, but according to JG de Casparis inscriptions are from the mid-7th century AD.

Form (rupa) of this inscription as compared with other inscription is considered the most artistic and beautiful, the shape of your foot, showing the statue of Srivijaya has had a capable artist. In this site also found a stone that reads sidhayatra (victory or holy journey). It is estimated that this place is an important place of pilgrimage at the time.

Judging from the inscription perupaan Stone Lake, which appears is seven cobra heads and at the bottom of the inscription there is a rail or channel with a symmetrical between left and right meet in the middle like a fountain of water. From the shape and it describes two shower perupaan genitals at once (hermaphrodite), which when linked with mystical cosmology is a symbol of fertility. This inscription is the only inscription of Srivijaya which not only contain text, but also there is a shape or image. Seventh existing cobra head on the top of the inscription can be interpreted as an attempt to keep the king of Srivijaya content or text engraved inscription was still observed. Today, Old Malay inscriptions and lettered this Pallawa, stored in the National Museum, Jakarta.

Inscription City Limestone
This inscription was found in December 1892 on land that is surrounded by a fortress on the banks of the river Mendo land, the village of Lime City, before the village Penagan, District of West Mendo, Bangka regency. Srivijaya inscription which dates to 686 AD, the height 150 cm. Contains text that consists of 10 lines, lettered Pallawa, and the Old Malay language. This inscription is now deposited in the National Museum, Jakarta.

Limestone City this inscription when viewed in perupaan very different from other inscriptions Srivijaya, because the shape resembles a vertical inscription is in the tradition of megalithic menhirs.

Inscription Palas Pasemah
This inscription is found on the edge of Banana Way, South Lampung regency in 1957. Until now, the inscription is still located in this area (in situ). The inscription round-oval-shaped half is lettered Pallawa and Old Javanese language, does not contain a number of years. Based palaeografi (the science of ancient writing), the inscription is thought to have come from around the 7th century AD. Palas Pasemah inscription consists of 13 lines is almost the same as the inscription Brahi Coral and Lime City, contains a curse for those who do not obey the king of Srivijaya.

Inscription New Boom
This inscription was found in April 1992 by sand diggers named Rizal on the river Musi, the front Tekurep Crater Cemetery (burial Sultanate of Palembang), Road Blabak, 3 Ilir, Boom New Port area, Palembang. Rizal was a friend of Aminta, employees Museum Balaputra god, who reported the discovery of historical objects to the Head of Museums Balaputra Gods, Syamsir Alam, so the inscription can be saved. Allegedly used the site before the funeral Crater Tekurep Sultanate of Palembang family, is the site of Srivijaya kingdom.

Inscription, found time in a state of ruptured two conditions, a lump of stone that is round-oval reddish colored with 47 cm high and 32.5 cm wide. Based palaeografinya, these inscriptions are thought to originate from approximately the 7th century AD, lettered Pallawa, and the Old Malay language. This inscription is kept in the Museum District Balaputra Gods, South Sumatra Province.

Coral Prasasi libidinous
Inscriptions found in 1904 by Berkhout this year and is framed not only Srivijaya inscription found in Jambi Province, precisely on the banks of the River Merangin.

Like other Srivijaya inscription, inscriptions oval-shaped half-round is also lettered Palllawa and Old Malay language. Inscription from approximately the 7th century AD, consists of 16 lines, similar to the City Limestone stele, but does not load on the offensive by the army Srivijaya.

Inscription Ligor
In areas Ligor Malay Peninsula Land, discovered an inscription dates to 775 AD, written on two sides. The inscription on the side A is called Inscription Ligor A contains information Srivijaya kings .. The inscription on the side B is called Inscription Ligor B mention a king named Vishnu who holds Sarwarimadawimathana .. Both A and inscription inscription Ligor Ligor B written in Sanskrit. This inscription mentions about the capital Ligor as Srivijaya territory to oversee the shipping trade in the Straits of Malacca.

Nalanda inscription
This inscription was found at Nalanda, eastern India (Bihar State). This inscription is not framed in, but probably derived from the 9th century AD and the Sanskrit language. The contents of the new building in Nalanda monastery by the king Balaputra god, king of the Buddhist Srivijaya. Also mentioned is also the king's grandfather, known as Balaputra god who holds a Javanese king Sri Syailendrawamsatilaka Wirawairimathana (Jewels Syailendra killer enemies who Gagah Officer).

Additionally, mentioned also that the king named Dewapaladewa Nalanda, is pleased to release the 5 villages of taxes to pay the Srivijaya students studying in Nalanda.

Humpback Inscription (Jabung)
The inscription was discovered in 1985 in the village of Humpback, District Jabung, Central Lampung regency. This inscription is not framed in, based on palaeografi, estimated time of the inscription is one other Srivijaya inscription. The contents of the text also contains a curse or swear and use different language from the Old Malay usual.

Inscription Kambang Unglen 1
A fragment or fragments of stone inscriptions whitish yellow, length 36 cm, width 22 cm and 9.5 cm thick. Discovered on September 22, 1987 at Kambang Unglen, Palembang City (near Mount Siguntang). Fragments of carved stone stele with a few lines of text, of which a length of 27 cm and 3 cm high letters. Unfortunately the type of Srivijaya's writings have been worn. Writing that still can ring ... read glorious siddhayatra sarwastwa (... holy journey (pilgrimage) who wins and success for all creatures). That line can be compared with the last sentence Kedukan Bukit Inscription (682 AD), which reads ... glorious Srivijaya siddayatra subhiksa ni (t) yakala (... Sriwijaya a win in the sacred journey a successful, prosperous abundant always). This inscription is kept in the museum exhibition space Balaputra Gods, Palembang.

Inscription Kambang Unglen 2
Fragments of inscriptions found on page VII PGRI junior high school, Kambang Unglen, Ilir West I, Palembang, South Sumatra. This fragment measuring 12 x 13 cm, with letters measuring 1.5 x 2 cm. Of the four lines of inscription is still visible, which still may be read, only three lines, although it is rather difficult.

The inscription is made of stone is yellowish red, according to the forms of letters, supposedly from the Srivijaya period (7th century AD), Old Malay language. The contents of the inscription itself is still difficult to know, because the letters that are not clear. Inscription Kambang Unglen 2 also stored in the museum exhibition space Balaputra Gods, Palembang. In general, it can be said that the inscriptions are Srivijaya inscription curse, because of Srivijaya inscriptions already mentioned, five of which are the curse inscription.

Srivijaya inscriptions, such as Bukit Inscription Kedukan tend rounded, Inscription Gutters Tuwo likely skewed rectangular (trapezoidal), Stone Inscription horseshoe-shaped lake, New Boom Inscription tends oval (ellipse), and Inscription Rock Inscription Palas Pasemah and lust tend semicircular (horseshoe). Inscriptions such diverse forms as blocks of stone which is used as the media predicted stone inscription is not imported from elsewhere, but is already available at each location (nonmobile art). In addition to the inscriptions, artifacts Sriwijaya historical source is a statue. ARCA is an important tool for the Hindu-Buddhist religious life, as it is one of the media in the worship of the gods.

According to Bambang Budi Utomo, based on inventory data for metal and stone statues found on Sumatra number 116 statues, mostly found in southern Sumatra region, which is about 65 statues. While the statues are found in Sumatra, the center totaled 29 statues, found in northern Sumatra totaling 17 statues, and is found in the town of Limestone, Bangka are 4 statues. There are statues that have been completed and there is not yet complete, but in certain parts of his artistic style has been characterized. Berlanggam statues dynasty (8th century AD and 9th) are mostly found in southern Sumatra region amounted to 21 statues found in Sumatra and the middle of 12 statues. The data show the influence of the glory of the triumph of art when the Srivijaya dynasty was at its peak of glory.

Statues found around Palembang not only include Buddha statues, but also statues of Hindu. This proves that although the Srivijaya was one of the center of Buddhist studies, but still there is harmony in religious life. Several statues were Sriwijaya of them are as follows:

Buddha statue, from the Mount Siguntang, Palembang
This statue is the largest statues that come from the Srivijaya, about 3 feet tall. This statue stands being depicted wearing a transparent robe that covered her shoulders. Characteristics Amarawati show style, which flourished in South India in the 2nd century BC until the 5th, but still growing in Sri Lanka until the 8th century AD. Thus, the Bukit Siguntang estimated Buddha statue is from about the 7th century AD until to-8. This statue is now placed in the courtyard of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum, Palembang.

Ganesha statues, from the Major Road Ruslan (Pagaralam), Palembang
Statues found in the area of ​​Major Ruslan Road, Palembang. The road formerly known as Lorong Pagaralam Dam near the river which empties into the river Musi.This statue has the trappings of similar statues in Central Java, but the way the seat (right leg folded up) like the statues of South India. It seems that many South Indian influence on this one statue Srivijaya. This statue is now placed on the page.

Buddha statue, from Tingkip, Musirawas
Statues found in Tingkip, Musirawas in 1980, stands on Padmasana (lotus-shaped pedestal), both hands raised to the top with witarkamudra attitude (attitude Buddha taught dharma or religious teachings). Transparent robe covered her shoulders. This statue seems to belong to a group of pre-Angkor style that developed in about the 6th century BC and the 7th, or style Dwarawati (Thailand) which develops in about the 6th century BC until to-9. This statue is kept in the Museum Balaputra Gods, Palembang.

Arca Awalokiteswara, from Bingin, Musirawas
Found in Bingin, Musirawas District is an example of Buddhist statues from around the 8th century AD. Interesting characteristic is seen in statues Amithaba and crown, fabric covered with deer skin on the hips. On the back of the statue there are inscriptions that read dang acaryya syuta (title Buddhist monks).

Statue of Vishnu, of Lime City, Bangka
In Kota Kapur, Bangka, discovered the structure of white stone. Among the foundation ruins of the temple there are several fragments of statues of Vishnu. It is estimated that these fragments originate from at least 3 pieces of the statue of Vishnu. Presumably these statues dating from about the 6th century BC until the 7th.

All statues of Vishnu has the same characteristics, namely crown shape such as cylinders, like the statue of Vishnu in Khmer pre-Angkor period. Simple decorations, fabric length to below the knee, ornate pattern of curved lines, with four, only unfortunately it was broken. In some fragments there appears to be holding hands padma (lotus flower). Behind the head there is a curved backrest that has been broken, loose curls look close behind the neck, above the shoulders. All findings Limestone statue kept in the City Hall Archaeology Palembang.

Arca Awalokiteswara, from Nest Waty, Lemahabang (Lemabang), Palembang
This statue was found in 1959 precisely in the back yard that reads Waty Nest (Home Waty) Itjo Basaruddin property located at the confluence of Road No. Bambang Utoyo. 1A with Pendawa Road, Lemabang, Palembang. Currently (2008), who had stolen statues to Edinburgh but has been restored again, been moved from the backyard to the side of the house.

Together with this statue stupika also found hundreds of white clay. It seems that this statue has not been completed, because not wear jewelry, only at the crown there are statues amithaba. This statue is thought to have come from around the 8th century AD and 9th.

Bronze statue of Maitreya, the Buddha, and Awalokiteswara of Komering
All three statues are found in the River Komering. Derived from approximately the 9th century AD. All three statues show the art style of Central Java. This statue is kept in the National Museum, Jakarta.

Mahadeva Shiva statue, Bronze, from Palembang
This statue was found in Palembang. Carvings show the art style of Central Java in the 8th century BC until to-9. This statue is still incomplete, has four arms, two hands holding a rosary and rear camara (a tool to repel flies), while the front right hand in the attitude witarka mudra, the front left hand holding a jug.

Arca wear upawita (sash that crossed from the left shoulder to right) snake, bracelet shoulder, bracelet, a necklace, and ear ornaments. On the crown there is a skull and a crescent moon (on the left side) and fabric decorated with delicate folds. Tiger rag covering it up onto the waist. This statue is kept in the National Museum, Jakarta.

Mahadeva Shiva statue, of Tanah Abang, Muaraenim
Arca had broken the back of the head and this may represent Shiva Mahadeva. This statue body with all the statues from the Temple of Tanah Abang I, which is of white stone (limestone).

This statue is depicted sitting cross-legged on Padmasana, four-handed, right hand holding the knife behind the long-handed, left hand holds the rosary back. All I Tanah Abang temple statues, jewelry wearing a diadem, ear ornaments, necklace, bracelet sleeves, bracelets, and anklets. Sculptured style and character indicates the beginning of East Java around the 12th century AD.

Shiva statue Grand Master, from Muaraenim
Findings from the Temple I Tanah Abang is another Mahayana Shiva statue whose face is worn and the back of the right has been lost. But still complete the bodice.Two-handed, right hand holding a rosary, left hand holding the jug (komandalu).Plain fabric, transparent, length up to the calves, sampurnya wearing a beautiful bow.

Padmasana statue stands on a surface decorated with patterns of lotus seeds.Jewels like that another statue, consisting of the diadem, ear ornaments, necklaces, arm bracelets, bracelets, and anklets. Wear a sling and uncal chest that reaches to the knees.

Arca Ancestors I, of Muaraenim
Statue of this man classified as ancestral statues or statue that embodies a person, so not describe god. It is based on the absence of certain attributes that can make the determinant as the statue of the god.

This statue is depicted sitting cross-legged on Padmasana, two-handed, both hands resting on the lap, in the palm of his hand there is a lotus blossom. Curls on his shoulders reinforce this notion has a style statues of East Java. On the back there is a decorative edge around the flames.

Arca Ancestors II, from Muaraenim
I also like the statue Ancestors, Ancestor II statues have no particular attribute that indicates the identity of divinity. This statue sits cross-legged on a plain pedestal, her hands in her lap, in the palm of his hand there is a round object, possibly depict flowers bloom. Unlike the statue Ancestors I, the statue was described body fat, especially on the abdomen, as in the stomach Agastya or Ganesha. This statue also includes statues in the style of East Java.

Statue of Nandi, the Muaraenim
4 In addition to statues of gods and ancestral figures, in the temple of Tanah Abang I also found the statue of Nandi, the vehicle (bovine animal mounts god Shiva). Nandi statue is depicted sitting with both front legs folded back, wearing a necklace with a small chime pendulum and ornate strands of beads bind to the muzzle. His artistic style is similar to the style of the royal art Singasari of the 13th century AD.

Stambha, from Palembang
This artifact is called stambha, a pole, because it looks like this, only consists of some of the creatures, which are riding. The lowest is the elephant, then a giant or Ghana, and most of the lion. Unlike the other statues made from limestone, stambha is made of andesite. The pattern of elephants and lions is a popular pattern, particularly in rural eastern India in the 10th century to the 12th AD. All the statues from the Temple of Tanah Abang I was still in situ. In addition to artifacts in the form of statues, artifacts other Srivijaya, was found in the form of ceramics, porcelain, and the beads are also commonly found in the region of Palembang.

Archive quoted and excerpted from the book of Sriwijaya Suryanegara compiled by Erwan bin Asnawi Jayanegara, first published by the National Education Department of South Sumatra Province

0 comment:

Post a Comment