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Kingdom of Gapi / Sultanate of Ternate


Kingdom of Gapi / Sultanate of Ternate | HISTORY OF CULTUREGapi kingdom or a later better known as the Sultanate of Ternate (after the name of its capital) is one of the four kingdoms of Islam in the Moluccas and is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in the archipelago. Founded by Ba'ab Mashur Malamo in 1257. Sultanate of Ternate has an important role in the eastern archipelago between the 13th century until the 17th century. Enjoy the glories of the Sultanate of Ternate in the last half century, thanks to -16 spice trade and military power. In the heyday of its power stretches covers an area of Maluku, Sulawesi, north, east and central, southern part of the Philippine archipelago as far as the Marshall Islands in the Pacific.


Origin of the Island Gapi
Gapi Island (now Ternate) began bustling in the early 13th century, the population is Ternate early exodus of residents from Halmahera. Initially there are four villages in Ternate that each - each headed by a momole (clan heads), they were the first - first make contact with the traders who came from all directions looking for spices - spices. Increasingly heterogeneous population of Ternate with bermukimnya Arab traders, Javanese, Malay and Chinese. Because of the increasingly busy trading activities plus the threat often comes from the pirates then on the initiative momole Tobona leaders held meetings In order to form a stronger organization and to appoint a single leader as king.

Year 1257 momole Ciko Sampalu elected and appointed leaders as Kolano (king) first with a degree Baab Mashur Malamo (1257-1272). Gapi kingdom centered in the village of Ternate, which in the subsequent development of increasingly large and crowded, so the population is also known as "Gam Lamo," or large village (later called Gam Lamo people with Gamalama). The larger and the popularity of Ternate, so then people would prefer to say the kingdom of Ternate than Gapi kingdom. Under the leadership of several generations later rulers, Ternate evolved from a kingdom that only berwilayahkan a small island became an influential and largest kingdom in the eastern part of Indonesia, especially the Moluccas.


Organization of the Kingdom
In the old days - early days of the tribe led by the momole Ternate. After forming the kingdom of leadership positions held by a king called Kolano. Starting in the mid-15th century, Islam was adopted in total by the royal and the application of Islamic law enforced. Sultan Zainal Abidin Kolano leave the title and replace it with the title of Sultan. The scholars became an important figure in the kingdom.

After the Sultan as the supreme leader, no office Jogugu (prime minister) and the Fala Raha as advisers. Fala Raha or Four Houses are the four noble clans who became the backbone of the empire as a representation of the momole in the past, respectively - each headed by a Kimalaha. They are; Marasaoli, Tomagola Tomaito and Tamadi. Officials - officials are generally derived from the imperial clan - the clan. When an emperor had no heirs then his successor is selected from one of the clan. Furthermore, there are positions - another position Bobato Nyagimoi Tufkange se (Council 18), Sabua Raha, Capita Lau, Salahakan, etc. Sangaji. For more details see the organizational structure of the sultanate of Ternate. Here is a list of the Sultan of Ternate:
  1. Kaicil Mashur Malamo or Kaicili Tsyuka (1257-1277)
  2. Kaicil Jamin or Kadarat Chile (1277-1284)
  3. Kaicil Kamalu or Abu Sahid (1284-1298)
  4. Kaicil Bakuku (1298-1304)
  5. Kaicil Nagarah Malamo (1304-1317)
  6. Kaicil Patsarangah Malamo (1317-1322)
  7. Arif Malamo Kaicil Session (1322-1331)
  8. Kaicil Paji Malamo (1331-1332)
  9. Kaicil Sah Alam (1332-1343)
  10. Tulu Kaicil Malamo (1343-1347)
  11. Kie Kaicil Mabiji (1347-1350)
  12. Kaicil Ngolo Macayah (1350-1357)
  13. Kaicil Mamole (1357-1359)
  14. Kaicil Gapi Malamo (1359-1372)
  15. Kaicil Gapi Baguna or Gapi Baguna I (1372-1377)
  16. Kaicil Kamalu (1377-1432)
  17. Kaicil Sia or Gapi Baguna II (1432-1465)
  18. Kaicil Gapi Baguna or Marhum (1465-1486)
Moloku Kie Raha
In addition to Ternate, Maluku is also contained at least 5 other kingdoms that have an influence. Tidore, Jailolo, Bacan, Obi and Loloda. Kingdom - the kingdom is fighting hegemony rival of Ternate in the Moluccas. Thanks to the spice trade in Ternate enjoyed impressive economic growth, and to strengthen its hegemony in the Moluccas, Ternate began to expand. This has led to resentment and jealousy enlarge another kingdom in Maluku, Ternate they view as a common enemy to trigger a war. In order to stop a protracted conflict - soluble, king of Ternate to-7 Kolano Chile Aiya also called Arif Malamo Kolano Sida (1322-1331) invited the king - king of the Moluccas another reason to make peace and form an alliance. The Guild was later known as Moti or Motir Persekutan Verbond. Important points of this meeting is in addition to establishment of uniform shape institutional fellowship kingdom in the Moluccas. Therefore this meeting was attended by four of the strongest king Moluccas it is also known as communion Moloku Kie Raha (Four Mountain Moluccas).

Arrival of Islam
There was no obvious source for when the early arrival of Islam, especially Ternate in the Moluccas. But is expected since the beginning of the kingdom of Ternate Ternate society has come to know Islam considering the number of Arab traders who had settled in Ternate at the time. Some of the early kings of Ternate is already using the name of Islam but the certainty of their nuances and the royal family embraced Islam is still debated. Can only be sure that the royal family embraced Islam the official Ternate mid-15th century.

Kolano Marhum (1465-1486), ruler of Ternate to-18 is the first known king embraced Islam with all the relatives and courtiers. Substitute Kolano Marhum is his son, Zainal Abidin (1486-1500). Some of the steps taken by Sultan Zainal Abidin is leaving the title Kolano and replace it with the Sultan, Islam is recognized as the official religion of the kingdom, imposed Islamic law, form the royal institution in accordance with Islamic law involving the clergy. The steps are then followed by another empire in the Moluccas in total, almost without change. He also founded the first madrasah in Ternate. Sultan Zainal Abidin ever deepening sit under the teachings of Islam by Giri on the island of Java, where he was known as the "Sultan Bualawa" (Sultan Cloves).

The arrival of Portugal and civil war
In the reign of Sultan Bayanullah (1500-1521), Ternate growing, people are required to dress Islamically, boat building techniques and weapons obtained from the Arabs and Turks used to strengthen the forces of Ternate. In this period also the first Europeans arrived in the Moluccas, Loedwijk de Bartomo (Ludovico Varthema) in 1506. Portugal in 1512 for the first time set foot in Ternate under the leadership of Francisco Serrao, with the approval of the Sultan, Portugal allowed to set up a trading post at Ternate. 

Portugal came not alone - eye to trade but to control the spice trade - spices nutmeg and cloves in the Moluccas. For that first they must conquer Ternate. Bayanullah Sultan died leaving heirs - heirs are still very young. Widow of the sultan, and the Prince Consort Nukila Taruwese, sister of the late sultan acted as a guardian. Empress Nukila the origin of Tidore Ternate and Tidore intended to bring together under one crown which is one of his sons, princes Hidayat (later Sultan Dayalu) and the prince Abu Hayat (later Sultan Abu Hayat II). While the prince Tarruwese wants the throne for himself.

Portugal took advantage of this and pitting them until civil war broke out. Kubu Nukila supported empress prince of Tidore while Taruwese supported Portugal. After a victorious prince was betrayed and murdered precisely Taruwese Portugal. Portugal acts as an advisor to the Governor of the kingdom and the influence that the kingdom was able to persuade the council to lift Tabariji as a sovereign prince. But when the Sultan Tabariji began to show hostility, he was vilified and banished to Goa - India. There he was forced Portugal to sign an agreement making the Christian kingdom of Ternate as vassal kingdoms and Portugal, but the treaty was rejected Sultan Khairun (1534-1570).

Expulsion of Portugal
Treatment of Portugal against brother - his brother the Sultan Khairun furious and determined to expel the Portuguese from the Moluccas. Follow-up - horns on this one western nations also infuriated the people who ultimately stand behind the sultan Khairun. Since the sultan Bayanullah, Ternate has become one of the three most powerful empire and a major Islamic center in the archipelago of the 16th century in addition to Aceh and Demak after the fall of the Malacca Sultanate in 1511. The three formed the Alliance Three to stem the lunge Portugal in the archipelago.

Do not want to be the second of Malacca, Sultan Khairun waged war expulsion of Portugal. Portugal's position was very strong at that time, besides having the power of the fort and pockets throughout the Moluccas they also have allies - allies of indigenous tribes that could be deployed to head off Ternate. With the Aceh and Demak that continue to threaten the position of the Portuguese in Malacca, the Portuguese in the Moluccas difficulty getting reinforcements up to the Sultan was forced to beg peace Khairun. In Portuguese crafty governor, Lopez de Mesquita Sultan Khairun invited to the negotiating table and end up with the cruel killing of Sultan who come without bodyguards.

The murder of Sultan Ternate Khairun increasingly encourage people to get rid of Portugal, even the whole Maluku now supports the leadership and the struggle Baabullah Sultan (1570-1583), Portuguese outposts throughout the Moluccas and pounded eastern Indonesia, after fighting for 5 years, finally left the Moluccas Portugal for good in 1575. Ternate people's victory is a victory first sons of the strength of the western archipelago. Under the leadership of Sultan Baabullah, reaching Ternate's heyday, the area stretching from North and Central Sulawesi in the west to the Marshall Islands to the east, from Filipinos (South) in the north to the islands of Nusa Tenggara in the south. Sultan Baabullah dubbed "the ruler of 72 islands" which are all uninhabited (Dutch historian, Valentijn tells in detail the names of all 72 islands) to make the sultanate of Ternate as the greatest Islamic kingdom in eastern Indonesia, as well as Aceh and Demak that controls the western and central archipelago at that time. Period of three golden empire during the 14th and 15th centuries whether intentionally or not excluded in this nation's history when they were first pillar is to stem the western colonialism.

The arrival of the Dutch
After the death of the Sultan of Ternate Baabullah began to weaken, which has united Spain with Portugal in 1580 trying to regain control by attacking Ternate Moluccas. With the new force Spain to strengthen its position in the Philippines, Ternate was an alliance with Spain Mindanao but failed to dispel even the Sultan Said Barakati Spain successfully captured and exiled to Manila. Defeat after defeat suffered by the force of Ternate asked help of the Netherlands in 1603. Ternate eventually succeed in return for holding Spanish but very expensive. The Netherlands finally slowly mastering Ternate, dated June 26, 1607 the Sultan of Ternate signed a VOC monopoly in the Moluccas in return for aid against the Spanish Netherlands. In the year 1607 also the Dutch built fort Oranje on Ternate, which is their first fort in the archipelago.

Since the beginning of a relationship that is unhealthy and unbalanced between the Dutch and Ternate lead to dissatisfaction of the rulers and nobles of Ternate. Among them is a prince Hidayat (15?? - 1624), the young King of Ambon is also a former trustee of this king of Ternate, who led the opposition against the position of the sultan and the Netherlands. He ignored the agreement the Dutch trade monopoly by selling spices - spice merchant to Java and Makassar.

People's resistance and the fall of Ternate, Moluccas


The longer grip and the Dutch influence on the sultan - the stronger the sultan of Ternate, Dutch freely that hurts the regulations issued by the sovereign command, the brash attitude of the Dutch and the Sultan attitude that tends to lead to disappointment all the obedient. Throughout the 17th century, at least there are 4 insurrection fought by nobles and people of Ternate, Moluccas.

In 1635, for ease of supervision and spice prices slumped mengatrol Dutch decided to do logging large - scale clove and nutmeg trees throughout the Moluccas, or better known as Hongi Tochten, consequently the people fomenting resistance. 1641, led by the young king Salahakan Luhu Ambon, Ternate tens of thousands of joint forces - Hitu - Makassar demolish various Dutch position in the Central Moluccas. Salahakan Luhu later arrested and executed along with his entire family on June 16, 1643. The struggle then was continued by brother-Luhu, Hitu Kakiali and Tolukabessi capita until 1646.

Year 1650, the nobles fomenting resistance in Ternate Ternate and Ambon, the revolt was triggered Sultan Mandarsyah attitude (1648-1650,1655-1675), which are too familiar and considered likely to placate the Netherlands. The nobles conspired to lower Mandarsyah. Three of the main rebel prince trio Saidi, Majira and Kalumata. Prince Capita Saidi is a Marine or army supreme commander of Ternate, the young prince is king Majira Ambon while the prince sultan Mandarsyah Kalumata is the younger brother.

Saidi and Majira led the rebellion in the Moluccas center while the prince joined the king of Gowa Kalumata Sultan Hasanuddin in Makassar. They even managed to lose the sovereign from the throne and lifted Mandarsyah Manilha Sultan (1650-1655) but thanks to the help of the Dutch position Mandarsyah reinstated. After 5 years of the rebellion put down Saidi et al. Prince Saidi brutally tortured to death while Majira prince Sultan and Kalumata receive forgiveness and live in exile.

Sultan Muhammad Nurul Islam, better known by the name of Sultan Sibori (1675 - 1691) was frustrated with the follow - Dutch horn arbitrary - pa. He then established alliances with the rulers of Mindanao Datuk Abdulrahman, but its efforts to join forces less than the maximum because the area - the strategic areas that can be relied upon to base resistance already fallen into the hands of the Dutch by the various agreements that made its predecessors. He was defeated and forced to evacuate to Jailolo. Dated July 7, 1683 Sibori Sultan was forced to sign an agreement that essentially makes Ternate as the dependent kingdom of the Netherlands. This agreement put an end to the Ternate as a sovereign state.

Despite having lost some of their power to keep fighting the next Sultan of Ternate Ternate release from the clutches of the Netherlands. With limited capability because they are always supervised only people capable of supporting the struggle in silence - silence. The last one in 1914 Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Shah (1896-1927) moves people's resistance in the territory - territory, began in the Banggai region under the leadership of Hairuddin Tomagola but failed.

In Jailolo people Tudowongi, Tuwada and Kao led by Capita Banau managed to cause damage in the Netherlands, many Dutch soldiers who were killed, including the Netherlands Coentroleur Agerbeek, their headquarters laid - apart. However, because the military superiority and a more complete arsenal owned by the Dutch resistance was successfully broken, Banau capita was arrested and sentenced to hang. Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Shah proved to be involved in this rebellion is therefore based on the Dutch East Indies government's decision, dated 23 September 1915 no. 47, Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Shah was removed from the position of the sultan and all his property confiscated, he was disposed to Bandung in 1915 and died there in 1927. Post-reduction Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Shah sultan had vacant positions for 14 years and is run by the customs administration and council Jogugu empire. Had appeared the Dutch East Indies government's desire to remove the sultanate of Ternate, but the intention was nevertheless carried out for fear of a backlash that could trigger a new uprising while Ternate was far from the center of the Dutch government in Batavia.

In the age which is now entering the age of 750 years, the Sultanate of Ternate was still retained even though only a mere symbol. Position as the leader of the sultan of Ternate to the 49th sultan now held by Drs. H. Mudaffar Sjah, BcHk. (Mudaffar II) who was crowned in 1986.

Heritage Ternate
Empire led the archipelago east of Ternate has indeed been falling since the mid-17th century but the influence of Ternate as a kingdom with a long history still felt until centuries later. Ternate has a huge stake in the culture of the archipelago, especially the eastern part of Sulawesi (north and east coast) and the Moluccas. It includes the influence of religion, customs and language.

As the first monarch to embrace Islam Ternate has a major role in efforts pengislaman and the introduction of Sharia-Islamic law in the eastern archipelago and the southern Philippines. Form of imperial organization and the application of Islamic law was first introduced by Sultan Zainal Abidin, a standard that is followed all the kingdoms of the Moluccas nearly without any significant change. The success of the people under the sultan of Ternate Baabullah in ousting Portugal in 1575 is the first victory over the forces of western native archipelago, hence the late Buya Hamka even praised the victory of the people of Ternate has been delayed colonization western archipelago on earth for 100 years as well as strengthening the position of Islam, and if the people of Ternate failed to eastern Indonesia will undoubtedly be the center of Christianity as well as the Philippines.

Ternate position as an influential kingdom also participated in raising the degree of Ternate language as a lingua franca in various regions under its influence. Prof. E.K.W. Masinambow in his writing: "The language of Ternate in the context of language - Austronesian and non-Austronesian language" suggests that the language of Ternate has the greatest impact on the use of Malay society eastern Indonesia. As many as 46% in Manado Malay vocabulary is taken from the language of Ternate. Malay language - Ternate is now used widely in eastern Indonesia, especially North Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi and the eastern coast of South Maluku and Papua with a different dialect - different. Two of the world's oldest Malay manuscript is a manuscript letter of the Sultan of Ternate Abu Hayat II to the King of Portugal on 27 April and 8 November 1521 which is still stored in the museum of Lisbon - Portugal.

3 comment:

rising phoenix said...

I am a descendent of one of the princes that was exiled to Cape Town,south africa. Was wondering if you could assist me in getting his family tree please? my contact details are as follows risingphoenix.co@gmail.com
Please also read below about the prince in question. Thank you
Imam ‘Abdullah ibn Kadi [Qadri] Abdus Salaam, known as Tuan Guru, the son of a qadi, born in 1712, was a Prince from Tidore in the Ternate Islands [of Indonesia]. He traces his geneology to the Sultan of Morocco and his ancestry to that of the holy Prophet Muhammad [salla Allahu‘alayhi wa sallam]. He was brought to the Cape on April 06, 1780 as a "state prisoner" along with Callie Abdol Rauf, Badroedin [Badr al-DinJ and Noro Iman [Nur al-Iman]; they were incarcarated on Robben Island. Their registration in the "Bandieten Rollen" for 1780 reveals that they conspired politically with the English in the East against the Dutch.

Dan Males said...

MINDANAO WAS NEVER PART OF TERNATE BUT JUST EXTENDING INFLUENCE BECAUSE MINDANAO WAS LAREADY DIVIDED INTO DIFFERENT SULTANATE AND KINGDOMS..

According to the revolvy. com Old Sultanate of Ternate just influenced the South of Mindanao. South of Mindanao means the Miangas island and the Samal island of Davao but not controlling the Mindanao island

When you look at the history of Mindanao, the civilization was dated between 4,500 and 2,000 BC see Subanen Tribe of Mindanao in the southern Philippines.

The Division of Mindanao

WESTERN MINDANAO

is controlled and governed by the Subanen tribe since the ancient times in a Monarchy system of government through the a Datu, Timuay and Bae the following areas in named in the present

1.) Basilan Island
2.) Zamboanga Peninsula ( Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugey)
3. Misamis Occidental (Ozamis City- Center of Armed forces of Subanen tribe)
4.) Lanao del norte - iligan city (Boundary with Maranao Tribe)
5. Cagayan de Oro,
6. Misamis Oriental
7. Gingoog City (Boundary with the kaharian sa Butuan or Kingdom of Butuan)
8 Camiguin Island

NORTHERN MINDANAO

Boudary in Gingoog the territory of Subanen tribe and the kaharain sa Butuan ( Kingdom of Butuan) dominated by the kamayo tribe to Surigao and Dinagat Islands

NORTHEASTERN MINDANAO

GovernED by the Mandaya tribe including Davao del Sur, Davao Del Norte, Davao Oriental and Davao Occidental

SOUTHERN MINDANAO

Governed by the Maguindanao Tribe through Sultanate of Maguindanao shared with the Maranao Tribe

SOUTHWESTERN MINDANAO

Governed by the Sultanate of Sulu - the tausug people with Areas of Sulu and North Borneo

Dan Males said...

MINDANAO WAS NEVER PART OF SULTANTE OF TERNATE AND THE SULTANATE OF TIDORE BUT TIDORE JUST EXTENDING INFLUENCE AND ALLIANCE WITH THE MAGUINDANAO SULTANATE BECAUSE MINDANAO WAS ALREADY DIVIDED INTO DIFFERENT SULTANATE AND KINGDOMS..

According to the revolvy. com Old Sultanate of Ternate just influenced the South of Mindanao. South of Mindanao means the Miangas island and the Samal island of Davao but not controlling the Mindanao island

When you look at the history of Mindanao, the civilization was dated between 4,500 and 2,000 BC see Subanen Tribe of Mindanao in the southern Philippines appears to be earlier than Indonesia.

The Asia pacific history and artifacts found out that the first human existence was from the North Luzon and the oldest, the earlies human that exist in the Whole Asia pacific see the timeline of the Philippines.

Meaning the people of the asia paficic including indonesia are from the ancient of the Ybatan tribe in northern Luzon which was called as Austronesian. The blood line of all facific lander are from the North Luzon of the North Philippines close to Taiwan. As discovery that corrected the previous thought that the Austronesians are from taiwan but later found out that the Old Austronesians are from Cagayan, North Luzon with a modern name Ybatan Tribe (Origin of Austronesian) traveling to Taiwan and migrating all over the Asia pacific.

The Divisions of Mindanao

WESTERN MINDANAO

is controlled and governed by the Subanen tribe since the ancient times in a Monarchy system of government through the a Datu, Timuay and Bae the following areas in named in the present

1.) Basilan Island
2.) Zamboanga Peninsula ( Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugey)
3. Misamis Occidental (Ozamis City- Center of Armed forces of Subanen tribe)
4.) Lanao del norte - iligan city (Boundary with Maranao Tribe)
5. Cagayan de Oro,
6. Misamis Oriental
7. Gingoog City (Boundary with the kaharian sa Butuan or Kingdom of Butuan)
8 Camiguin Island

NORTHERN MINDANAO

Boundary in Gingoog the territory of Subanen tribe and the kaharain sa Butuan ( Kingdom of Butuan) dominated by the kamayo tribe to Surigao and Dinagat Islands

NORTHEASTERN MINDANAO

Governed by the Mandaya tribe including Davao del Sur, Davao Del Norte, Davao Oriental and Davao Occidental

SOUTHERN MINDANAO

Governed by the Maguindanao Tribe through Sultanate of Maguindanao shared with the Maranao Tribe

SOUTHWESTERN MINDANAO

Governed by the Sultanate of Sulu - the tausug people with Areas of Sulu and North Borneo

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