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The Influence of Srivijaya Kingdom in Kalimantan


HISTORY OF CULTUREThe Influence of Srivijaya Kingdom in Kalimantan | Location of Borneo island that used to be in the area of trade routes and the Malacca Strait waters South China Sea has allowed mobility in economic, political, and cultural exchange. Some Archaeological data indicate that this area received Indian cultural influence since the 4th century AD, which is patterned from the Hindu kingdom in Kutai, East Kalimantan (Sumadio, 1993: 31).

Other Archaeological data shows that the process of Borneo into the discourse of the arrival of several classic examples of Hindu gods on Mount Kombeng Cave-Kutai (Kusmartono, 2000: 22), Great Temple and Temple Barrel in South Kalimantan (7 M) (Nastiti, 1998: 27 - 28). Especially in Kalimantan are also found in which some Archaeological Relics have a Hindu-Buddhist style, (7 M) and Stone Until Praasti (Sukarto, 1994: 1-2; Utomo, 2007: 39-42).

Another discovery is the statue of Nandi (Utomo, 2007: 46-49). Seeing the spread of existing data, it is possible the number of data that have not been explored in relation to the natural conditions in Kalimantan. Borneo in China news (T'ai p'ing huan yu chi) is called the Chin shih li p'i . More details, Moens identified that this area is considered part of the kingdom debagai Wijaya Pura (Wolters, 1974; 174 -- 175). Even in China did not mention the news of China's Envoy to the region although it is possible for the 6th century AD had established a mutually beneficial relationship (Utomo, 2007: 5-6).



Large trading activity in the surrounding waters of the Malacca Strait and South China Sea have been giving some touch of foreign culture into Borneo. This condition is associated with trading activities that allow contact with other cultures, ie including the spread of religious values. Trading activities in Kalimantan, also not prevent the existence of the influence of the neighboring kingdom, Sriwijaya example is the Strait of Malacca has been controlled since the 7th century AD The existence of Srivijaya that controlled waters are more or less Malacca will affect the mobility of civilization in Kalimantan, West Kalimantan in particular. These conditions lead to consequences which the hegemony of the powerful Srivijaya in the Malacca Strait. Some coastal areas in surrounding areas such as the Malacca Strait and Bangka Malay is one example that has influenced the hegemony of Sriwijaya.

In the 7th century AD, Buddhism activities and Centralized in Sriwijaya Buddhism symptoms are also found in Borneo and then raises issues that affect the relationship between the two areas to expand in terms of Srivijaya culture. Lack of data distribution of the Archaeological heritage of the Hindu-Buddhist in Borneo make this discussion is in the discourse hypothesis.

Sriwijaya as a Social and Cultural Dynamics in the Malacca Strait Area
Territorial waters of the Malacca Strait links for great culture of India with China is a large trading network. This condition has an advantage since some ports built along the coastal areas of Sumatra and Peninsular Malays. This condition ultimately accelerate the growth of large cultures as Srivijaya.Since the 7 th century AD, Srivijaya had emerged as the holder of the economic policy in the Malacca Strait waters. Various sources of economic commodities along the Strait of Malacca has been organized as a business for the continuation of government (Rangkuti, 1994: 163). Furthermore, Lapian (1979: 97) affirms that Srivijaya was a major force in the history of the archipelago has been successfully controlled waters and holds the key to good perdangan from China and the State The countries on the wind (north).

The Emergence and development of Srivijaya in the 7th century AD as a holder of political power only in the Malacca Strait has sparked the attention of researchers, such as, and John N. Miksic (1984).Miksic (1984: 9) argues that local factors are the main factors in the growth of large cultures Kingdom. This assumption is intended as an alternative to the assumption Expressed by Bennet Bronson, that the main factors driving the development of Sriwijaya in South Sumatra is the position in the international communication lines between the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and Eastern Indonesia. These factors local conditions (internal) and external factors (external) are united into an influence for the Emergence and development of Srivijaya civilization.

The development of a culture of Sriwijaya not be separated from the network and the density of information activities, exchange of information and commodities with a high frequency that has been built with advanced (Miksic, 1984: 20). Flow of trade in the Malacca Strait has triggered the formation of continuous interaction with the outside areas. In other words, interaction with the outside world has opened up the knowledge in the development of new ideas both in terms of technology and culture. "As a form of great culture, in its development, Sriwijaya has produced some significant omissions so great. Several buildings in Buddhist worship in some areas in Sumatra. Location Indicates the growth of religious existence of the Uniqueness of the diverse community .

In addition to the construction of religious Monuments, Sriwijaya also developed a culture of writing invented by the Mahayana Buddhist learning center in Southeast Asia. In the I-Tsing notes mention that before the students go to in Nalanda to study Buddhism, they are generally stopped at Sriwijaya first to learn Sanskrit (Sumadio, 1993: 75-76; Utomo, 2003: 79).

Srivijaya influence symptoms in Borneo as a Basic Archaeological
Buddhism in Borneo started there since the mid-7th century AD This condition is marked by the discovery of stone inscription related Pait 7 units from the stone stupa reliefs . This inscription contains the number 578 Saka (656 AD) and consists of ye-te is a sacred mantra of Buddhism (Atmodjo, 1994: 1-2; Utomo, 2007: 39-42). Some signs of the existence of Buddhism in Borneo were also seen in the discovery of Buddha statues made of metal in the region of West Kalimantan, however, these findings do not have a clear context. The statues are now kept in the British Museum,London. Study the basic iconography of the Buddha statues are believed by researchers from the 8-11 th century AD (Utomo, 2007: 10-35). The discovery that has Shades of Buddhism are also found in South Kalimantan that has a statue of Buddha in the style Dipangkara Sri Lanka. This statue is regarded as a commodity that is carried by the trade during that period (Nastiti, 1998).

In connection with the figures in the stone inscriptions can Pait known in advance that Buddhism has been ahead in the expansion in the region of Borneo on the Srivijaya (Utomo, 2007: 56). Srivijaya kingdom expanded its power after the 7th century AD and began plugging Scepter around the 8th century AD (Soeroso, 1998). In the 8th century AD, Srivijaya began to show the activities of political hegemony in the region of the Malacca Strait with the symbols of Buddhism.

Note the way the I-Tsing (689-692) reported that the Sriwijaya has a big role in the development of Buddhism teaching. Event of Buddhism has entered the political realm to a king as the protector of Sriwijaya called Buddhism (Sumadio, 1993: 75). King with the political territory, has given a touch of the region both in terms lainnnya coordination lines and other areas without coordination line. Great culture that brought them widespread Srivijaya to several areas in the Strait of Malacca. symbol-filled cultural symbol of the struggle made until finally a touch of the other kingdoms.

Due to the lack of findings that show style Buddhism in West Kalimantan, can not be regarded as an end of the activity of Buddhism in the region, wlaupun thus be regarded as being peralihat attention to the larger culture of Srivijaya. Great culture with a broad political power has affected a community approach to the culture in the small. The development of Buddhism in Sriwijaya has created a new outlook for the next religious ideas which will be followed by the community in a small area of culture, although not in a single unit.

Touch of a particular culture associated with the existence of Srivijaya was felt in South Kalimantan.In the context of related sites Dipangkara Buddha statue found in an inscription which only the sentence Mentions siddha majesty and grandeur of siddhayatrasarvvasatya (Sumadio, 1993: 60).

Buddhism symbols carried by Sriwijaya described in sentence form. If further defined, short sentences that have signs Pilgrimage activities can also be interpreted as a military expansion to achieve an honorarium for the Kingdom. Inscription which contains the short story found in South Kalimantan that mention the phrase Indicates the presence of greatness siddha symptoms sacred journey of the people trust the king of Srivijaya. However, until now, the form of travel that has the form of military activity has not been found in Borneo. This condition assumption member that the relationship between Srivijaya and the activities of the kingdoms in Borneo was limited relationship paralellisme

Conclusion
Basic studies the existence of Archaeological data show the influence of Srivijaya kingdom to the Borneo Pemengaruhan obtained through strong influence of socio-cultural activities in the waters of the Malacca Strait - Sunda Strait - Strait Karimata. Role of Srivijaya kingdom of this region is likely limited to the big powers, cultural activities and economic activities. Where in politics, the power of Srivijaya kingdom in Borneo has not been established Clearly. In this case, the concept of political subordination of course can not be applied or can be said that since ancient times tend to paralellisme have character.

Looking at the above conclusion, and in seeking to trace the development of a reorientation of Sriwijaya research. Reorientation of research aimed at not only focus on the areas of Sumatra, but also focus on research areas in particular archipelago (Kepulauan Riau, Kepulauan Bangka-Belitung, Borneo, and Malacca Strait area). This business is not only related to the Emergence of the kingdom of Srivijaya period in the century from 7 to 13 AD, but also the focus of research in the Early period AD. An early period of cultural relations with India and China.

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This article was translated from the original papers presented at an international seminar on Sriwijaya in Palembang in 2008 wrote titled: "Influence of Srivijaya Empire in Kalimantan (Between parallelism and subordination)" written by: Eko Herwanto, Imam Hindarto, and Bambang Sugiyanto (Archaeological Office of Banjarmasin)

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