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HOW ABOUT CULTURE OF PAPUA?


HISTORY OF CULTURE | HOW ABOUT CULTURE OF PAPUA? | It has long been the northwest tip of New Guinea and the entire north coast is influenced by the resident population of the Moluccas (Ambon, Ternate, Tidore, Seram and Key), then it is not surprising that tribes along the coast (Fak-Fak, Sorong, Manokwari and Gulf Cenderawasih) were classified as more worthy of the Ras Ras Melanesia Papua. Protestant Christian missionaries or mission of Germany (Ottow & Geissler) arrives on the island Mansinam Manokwari February 5, 1855 to further spread the religion along the northern coast of Irian. On February 5, 1935, recorded more than 50,000 people embraced Protestant Christianity. Then in 1898 the Dutch East Indies government opened the first government post in Fak-Fak and Manokwari and the government continued with the opening post in Merauke in 1902.

From the Catholic mission Merauke religious activities initiated and in general along the southern coast of Irian. In 1933 there were 7100 people Catholic faiths. Primary education is largely organized by both the religious mission, in which school teachers and religious teachers generally come from Eastern Indonesia (Ambon, Ternate, Tidore, Seram, Key, Manado, Sanger-Talaud, and Timor), where lessons are given in Malay. The division of these two religious groups that seem identical to the situation in Holland where Protestant Christianity in North and Catholic Christians in the South.


Education gets a substantial share of the budget of the Dutch government, in the last years of the colonial period, this education budget reached 11% of all expenditure in 1961. However, education is not tailored to the needs of the labor sector of modern economies, and which are preferred are the values  of the Dutch and the Christian religion. At the end of 1961 education plan aimed at increasing business skills, but are preferred education for spiritual and social progress. Although the language of "Malay" language used as "Franca" (Lingua Franca), Dutch was still taught as a compulsory language from primary schools, the languages  English, German and French is a second language which began to be taught in high school.

In the 1950's basic education continues to be done by both the religious mission. It is recorded that in 1961 there were 496 mission schools without subsidies with some 20,000 students. Elementary schools are subsidized as much as 776 by the number of pupils in 1961 by about 45,000 students, and entirely handled by the missions, and religious studies is a compulsory subject in this case. In 1961 recorded 1,000 students studying in junior high school, 95 people of Irian Studying abroad such as Holland, Port Moresby, and Australia where there is a university entrance and there is an incoming School of Nursing School of Agriculture and Health (eg the Netherlands National Institute for Tropica Agriculture and the Papuan Medical College in Port Moresby).

Although the Netherlands will have to spend big to menbangun West Irian, but the relationship between town and village or villages remains limited. Marine and foreign relations conducted by the company Koninklijk Paketvaart Maatschappij (KPM), which connects the cities of Hollandia, Biak, Manokwari, Sorong, Fak-Fak, and Merauke, Singapore, the Netherlands. In addition there are small boats owned by the government for purposes of governmental duties. The Netherlands also opened 17 offices that serve the POS and telecommunications across the city. There is a radio telephone which can be contacted via Biak, Hollandia, Amsterdam, also in each city there is a phone. There are airlines Luchvaart Maatschappij Nederland Nieuw Guinea (NNGLM) that organizes regular flights between Hollandia, Biak, Manokwari, Sorong, Merauke, and Jayawijaya with the DC-3 aircraft, followed by the airlines and Koniklijk Luchvaart Kroonduif Maatschappij (KLM) for overseas flights from Biak. Already since 1950 the airfield became Biak International field. In addition to the flight, there are also flights organized by the Protestant mission called Mission Aviation Fellowship (MAF) and the flight organized by the Catholic mission named Associated Mission Aviation (AMA), which serves flights to missionary outposts in the hinterland. The streets there are around major cities in the Hollandia 140 Km, 135 Km Biak, Manokwari 105 Km, 120 Km Sorong, Fak-Fak 5 Km and 70 Km Merauke.

About the culture of the population or culture of people in West Irian can be said to be diverse, some tribes have a culture that is high enough and the amazing tribes of the South Coast of New Guinea who is now better known as the tribes' ASMAT "tribal group is notorious for having excellence in terms of carving and dance. Culturally diverse population of New Guinea can be characterized by a number of local languages, especially in West Irian. Based on the results of studies of husband-wife Barr of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) in 1978 there are 224 local languages in West Irian, where the number will continue to rise given the research is still ongoing. Languages in West Irian Melanesian languages ??are classified into groups and classified in 31 groups of languages, namely:
Tobati, Kuime, Sewan, Kauwerawet, Pauwi, Ambai, Turu, Wondama, Roon, Hatam, Arfak, Karon, Kapaur, Waoisiran, Mimika, Kapauku, Moni, Ingkipulu, Pesechem, Teliformin, Awin, Mandobo, Auyu, Sohur, Boazi, Klader, Komoron, Jap, Marind-Anim, Yenan, and Serki. The number of languages mentioned above are very varied ranging from dozens to tens of thousands of people.

Traditionally, this type of residential community of West Irian can be divided into 4 groups where each type has a mode of socio-economic and cultural life of its own.

Coastal population;
Population is the main livelihood as a fisherman in addition to gardening and sago mix tailored to the residential neighborhood. Communication with the city and the outside community is not foreign to them.

Rural population who inhabited the lowlands;
They include sago gatherers, gardening, fishing river, hunting dihuta surrounding environment. They were happy to wander in small groups. They are there to inhabit dry land and there are inhabiting brackish swamps and along streams and rivers. Customs of them tight and always be suspicious of newcomers.

Population inhabiting the mountain valleys;
They grow crops, and raising pigs as the main livestock, sometimes they hunt and reap the rewards of the forest. The pattern of settlement remained in groups, with a friendly appearance when compared with the second type population (2). Customs are strictly run by the "Pig Party" as its symbol. Tight in the hold and keep their promises. The revenge is an act of heroism in the search for social equilibrium through "War of Interest" that can be likened to a game or competition. Cosmos, the nature of suspicious strangers there but not as tight as the population of type 2 (two).

Population inhabiting the mountainous slopes of the mountain;
Looking at the place of settlements that remain on the slopes of the mountain, giving the impression that they occupy a strategic place to reach the enemy where as early as possible always detect every living creature that approached the settlements. Their customs are very strict, some are still "cannibal" until now, and suicide is a commendable action if violated customary because it will avoid the disaster of the entire group of people. Tribal wars is a search for a balance of social activity, and suspicious of strangers is quite high as well.

In various cultures of Irian population there is a mystical movement with a popular term that is often called cargo cults. There is an event that most parents cargo movement in Irian Jaya in 1861 and occurred at Biak named "Koreri". Events or movements of the last cargo in 1959 until 1962 in Gakokebo-Enarotali (Paniai district) called "WERE / WEGE" as has been noted that this movement was originally politically motivated.

At the time of leaving the Dutch West Irian, good positions in the field of governance, development (service-bureau) as both a leader and the leadership handed over to the sons of the soil medium (people of Papua / West Irian) in accordance with the capabilities they have. Also the whole house and property, including buildings and land owned by the Dutch handed over to their acquaintances Papuans (helper and workmates) to have, because they can not sell it and no buyer at that time.

The Netherlands also leave an excess of conflict between tribes as a result of political activity that is a conflict between "Elite Pro-Papua" and "Elite Pro-Indonesia" marked by antagonism between the "Tribe versus tribe Serui Biak, Jayapura Tribe land-versus Red Tribe Serui ", although in this case not everyone is pro-Biak Papua, not everyone was pro-Indonesia Serui and not everyone Tanah Merah was pro-Jayapura-Papua and pro-Indonesia.

Based on the experience of the Dutch in Indonesia or independence of the Dutch East Indies in 1945, the Dutch in West Irian colonize extreme caution at all in improving the lives of people in various fields, and deliberately slowing the progression of the Dutch in New Guinea / New Guinea in accordance with permintahaan and needs of people people of West Irian. Let's say that this is a form of "a New Ethical-Political Style". This includes efforts to form a "Papuan Nationalism". Dutch way so it causes the people of Irian Jaya did not feel that they are being colonized because they live in a state of the economy is good and not feel any pain and pressure from the Netherlands.

Papuan
Papua is a region of Indonesia is the word list (Provinces) in Indonesia, located on the western portion of New Guinea island and surrounding islands.

Papua is sometimes invoked as kerana Papua West Papua should be referred to the entire island of New Guinea or the portion south of the country its neighbors, Papua New Guinea. West Papua is the term preferred by nationalists who want to separate the Papuan than Indonesia and form their own country. Region (Province) was first identified by the call of West Irian in 1969 until 1973, his name and then exchanged into Irian Jaya by Suharto, a name still used by Rasmi until 2002. The name of the region (province) was changed to Papua in accordance with Law No. 21/2001 Special autonomy in Papua. During the colonial era, the area was called New Guinea Netherlands (Dutch New Guinea).

Papua is a region (province) located in the eastern region of the Republic of Indonesia and is a region full of hope. The terrain has not been much aktiviti diterokai by humans and Papua is rich with natural resources and promising opportunities for developing trade. The land is filled with vast forests, sea and various biotanya and millions of land suitable for agriculture. In their ground stomach also stores the original gas, oil and various minerals that are just waiting for diterokai.

Content listing
1 Governance
2 Geography
3 Climate
4 Topography
5 Social and Cultural
6 Languages
7 Religion
8 East Mountain in Papua

Government
(provincial) city thousands of Papua in Jayapura and composed than pentadbirannya: 9 namely Jayapura Regency Government, Jayawijaya, Merauke, Fak-Fak, Sorong, Manokwari, Biak Numfor, Yapen Waropen and Nabire. Two local government namely Jayapura and Sorong, three Government District Administrative namely Puncak Jaya, Mimika and Paniai. Number of District in Papua is the 173 districts covering 2712 villages and 91 urban villages.

Geography
Papua is located on the position of 0 ° 19 '- 10 ° 45' latitude and 130 ° 45 '- 141 ° 48' E, sesetengah occupies the western portion of Papua New Guinea which is the second largest island after Greenland. In fizikal, Papua is a region (province), the largest in Indonesia, with a land area of  21.9% of the amount of land throughout Indonesia kesuluruhan namely 421.981 km ², stretching from west to east (Sorong - Jayapura) along 1.200 km (744 stone) and from the north to the south (Jayapura-Merauke) along 736 km (456 stone). Other than a yard, Papua also has many islands along the pesisirannya. In coastal northern island of Biak there, Numfor, Yapen and Mapia. In the western portion is Salawati Island, Batanta, Gag, and Yefman Waigeo. In coastal South Island there are also Kalepon, Komoran, Adi, Dol├ík and length, whereas in the eastern portion bersempadan with Papua New Guinea.

Climate
Papua is located just south of the equator, but kerana the mountainous region the climate in Papua Indonesia varies greatly exceeds other regions. In western and northern coastal areas of tropical humid climate with average rainfall tadahan numbered between 1500-7500 mm per year. Tadahan highest rainfall occurred in northern coastal and central highlands, while the lowest occurred tadahan rain on the coast south. The air temperature varies parallel with increasing altitude. For every increase in altitude of 100 m (900 ft), the average temperature will decrease 0.6 ° C.

Topography
Papua topography varies from lowlands to highlands swampy filled with tropical rain forests, grasslands and valleys. In the middle portion also contained a series of high mountains along the 650 km. One portion than the mountain is a famous mountainous Jayawijaya kerana there are three that although the highest peak located in the equatorial ruler but always covered by salji in Jayawijaya peak with an altitude of 5.030 m (15,090 feet), the peak Trikora 5.160 m (15.480 feet) and Yamin 5.100 m summit (15,300 feet). The major rivers and their tributaries flowing to the south and north. Digul River which originated from the rural district of Merauke to flow into the Arafura Sea. Warenai River, which passes Wagona and Mamberamo Jayawijaya, Jayapura Paniai and empties into the Pacific Ocean. Rivers has an important role for communities along its flow as both a source of water for daily life, as a fisherman mahupun as a means of connecting to the outside area. In addition there are also several lakes, including the famous is Lake Sentani in Jayapura, Lake Yamur, Tigi Lake and Lake Paniai in Nabire and Paniai.

Social Culture
In areas of varied topography of Papua there are hundreds of ethnic groups with the culture and customs of each differed. With reference to the distinction topography and customs then in amnya, resident in Papua bezakan into 3 major groups namely:

  • Population of coastal areas and islands with common characteristics, a house on poles (houses on stilts), livelihoods pound sago and catch fish.
  • Residents living inland in areas rivers, swamps, lakes and valleys and foothills. In general livelihood is fishing, hunting and collecting forest products.
  • Highland area residents with gardening farming livelihoods in a simple.
  • In general, the Papuan people living in the kinship system that embraces paternity or patrilinea.

Language
In Papua, there are hundreds of regional languages which develop on the existing ethnic groups. Various various languages has led to difficulties in communicating between one ethnic group by other ethnic groups. Therefore, Indonesian Rasmi used by communities in Papua, even down to the interior.

Religion
Religion is one very important aspect to people's lives in Papua and in terms of divinity, Papua can serve as an example for other regions. Kristian religious Majoriti Papuans, however, along with the development ease of transport to and from Papua, the number of people of other faiths including Islam is also growing. Many preachers as there are foreigners mahupun Indonesian people themselves who perform religious missions in the interior-interior of Papua. Their important role in helping the community together through the schools there are preachers, perubatan mahupun direct assistance to educate local communities in the fields of agriculture, teaching Indonesian language and knowledge Amali others - others. Preachers also a pioneer in opening routes to inland areas that have not been nurtured by regular flights.

East Mountain in Papua
Carstensz Pyramids
Puncak Jaya
Peak Sumantri Brodjonegoro
Carstensz Peak East
Peak Trikora

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