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Islamic Culture In Indonesia


Islamic Culture In Indonesia | HISTORY OF CULTURE | The spread of Islamic culture in Indonesia. Indonesian people have high ability in doing akulturisasi culture. This is evidenced by the success of the Indonesian community in mengakulturisasi Hindu-Buddhist culture and the later, Islam. Important note, the aspects of Hindu-Buddhist culture that is applied in Indonesia is not "really similar" to what is prevailing in India. Hindu-Buddhist culture that has experienced sinkretisisasi authentic local culture that flourished in Indonesia.

Sinkretisisasi this happens, as eg, the characterizations puppet. In the Indonesian wayang, there are figures of Indian "indigenous" as Yudhishthira, Arjuna, Bima, or figures such Kurawa Duryudana, Dursasana, Sangkuni, or Drona. However, once implemented in Indonesia, emerging figures such as Semar, Gareng, Petruk, Bagong or all of which are known as clown-servants. The characters are played by clown-servants had a spiritual dimension and ability that exceeds the skill of Indian puppet. 

This cultural Sinkretisisasi ensued when the spread of Islamic culture all over the island archipelago. Islam who later implicated in the archipelago has a number of newness when implemented on Indonesian soil. This paper will make a short trip in to see the influences of Islam on the local culture that flourished in Indonesia. 

The entry of Islam into Indonesia 

Islam developed through the intermediary of Arabic. Contacts between Islam and the archipelago largely take place in the coastal zone. Mainly through the process of trade between the local population by the merchants Persians, Arabs, and India Gujarat.These contacts, in its development, allowing a process of cultural akulturisasi. Islam later emerged as a "competing" Hindu-Buddhist culture. 

M.C. Ricklefs from the Australian National University found that 2 processes the entry of Islam into the archipelago. First, the indigenous population is in contact with the religion of Islam and then menganutnya. Secondly, the foreigners (Arab, Indian, Chinese) who have converted to Islam to live permanently in a region of Indonesia, married with the indigenous population, and follow the local lifestyle in such a way that they've become the Javanese, Malay, or any other tribe .1 

Another theory about the entry of Islam into the archipelago from the Middle East proposed Supartono Widyosiswoyo.2 opinion, penetration can be divided into three waves, namely: Northern Line, Central Line, and the South Line. Third wave is based on the base of the spread of Islam into Indonesia. 

Northern Line is the entry of Islam from Persia and Mesopotamia. From there, Islam went to the east via the land of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Gujarat, then take the sea route to Indonesia. Through the Northern Line, Islam appeared in its new form of Sufism flow. In this flow, combined with a strengthening of Islamic personal experience in the approach itself against God. This rapid flow into and penetrate the new adherents of Islam in the archipelago. Aceh become one basis point spread of the Islamic North. 

Middle Path is the process of entry of Islam from the western part of the Jordan River valley and the eastern peninsula of Arabia (Hadramaut). From here Islam spread in its native relative, among them the Wahhabi stream. The effect is particularly striking in the region of West Sumatra. This may occur by reason of the sea journey to Hadramaut directly to the west coast of Sumatra island. 

South Line his roots are in Egyptian territory. At that Cairo is the center of modern Islamic religious broadcasting and Indonesia tertama gain influence in the religious organization called Muhammadiyah. Activities through this route mainly educational, proselytizing, and the opposition of heresy. 

The first firm clues about the emergence of Islam in Indonesia is the discovery of gravestone of Sultan Sulaiman bin Abdullah bin al-Basir who died in 608H or 1211 AD, at the funeral Lamreh, northern Sumatra. This grave marker also indicates a first Islamic kingdom in the archipelago. Sect that flourished in northern Sumatra early development of Islam, according to Ibn Battuta (Morocco traveler) is Shafi .3 

The more significant the influence of Islam in Indonesia is the establishment of the kingdom. Jean Gelman-Taylor noted in Ternate (Maluku) rulers converted to Islam in 1460.4 In Demak, Muslim rulers founded the city in 1470, while port cities in the surrounding areas such as Tuban, Gresik, and Cirebon followed in the 1500s. Around the year 1515 the port of Aceh has the Islamic rulers, followed by Madura in 1528, Gorontalo 1525, Butung 1542. Luwuk ruler in 1605, Tallo, and Gowa (South Sulawesi) to Islam and the 1611 South Sulawesi peninsula has been mastered the Islamic rulers. 

In its development, there was a process of mutual influence between Islam who has been berakulturisasi with the local culture with Islam as coming from the Middle East region. This is especially more prominent in the current regime to power that uses the Wahhabi Ibn Saud as the understanding has become Muslim. This paper will not touch how the conflict between the two typologies of Islam. Writing just over a number of influences that brought Islam into the cultures that flourished in Indonesia. 

Penetration Method 

The method of penetration of Islam into the archipelago quite varied. Supartono Widyosiswoyo mention at least there are 6 methods are: trade, marriage, mysticism, education, arts and Trade sosial.5 coating is a method of Islamic penetration of the most obvious. In this process, domestic and foreign traders meet and exchange effects. Foreign traders consists of Gujarati traders and the Middle East. They are met by the duke of coastal areas want to break away from the power of Majapahit.Some of these foreign traders settled in the area adjacent to the beach and spread their Islamic culture. 

Marriage is mostly done among traders as the nomads with the daughters of dukes. In marriage, the groom is usually proposed requirement sentence pronunciation creed as legitimate marriages. The children resulting from the marriage following the religion of their parents. 
Sufism is a religion that many interesting method among the natives of Indonesia. The method is tolerant and does not lead to cultural shock is enough to make "flooding" new Islamists. Sufism is not creating a position diametrically with Hindu-Buddhist culture or tradition of local indigenous people who previously held. Sufism figures such as Hamzah Fansuri, Syamsudin Pasai, or Wali Songo (including Sheikh Siti Jenar) take a key position in the method of spreading Islam through Sufism this. 

Education is one method of spreading Islam. Before Islam arrived in Indonesia is known as the basis for Buddhist education, especially college Nalendra in South Sumatra. Pecantrikan and Mandala is a "school" where the student of knowledge among the population of pre-Islamic. After Islam came in, and Mandala Pecantrikan role was taken over and given the charge of Islam into it. 

Art, no doubt, have a significant role in spreading Islam. Indonesian people are artists who have a high level of fame. Through this art, Islam is relatively more acceptable than other methods. Sunan Kalijaga for example, using puppets as a way of proselytizing. Sunan Bonang use gamelan to sing religious hymns. This does not include other figures who adapted the art of local crafts and Hindu-Buddhist to later be given charge of Islam. 

Social stratification eventually occupy key positions. The main problem in previous religion is social stratification based on caste. Although not too tight, Hinduism in Indonesia to some extent influenced by social castes such as Brahmins, Knights, Vaishya, Sudra and Paria. Primarily, ordinary people less "freedom" with this system thus resulting in a number of limitations. Then Islam came and did not recognize social stratification. Of course, the Indonesian people who want "free" to respond with a good religion.

Language 

Initially, the Islamic conversion occurred in the Malayan peninsula and surrounding areas. Following conversion, the population continues to use the Malay language. Malay was used as the language of commerce and are widely used in the western part of Indonesian archipelago. In accordance with the early development of Islam, Malay language has also incorporated a number of Arabic words into the structure of the language. In fact, Taylor noted about 15% of the vocabulary of the Malay language is an adaptation of the language Arab.6 other hand, a modification of the letters Pallawa into Arabic, and this became known as Jawi letters. 

As the rise of Islam as the dominant religion of the archipelago, there is also the language used adaptation of Islam. These include penetrated into the structure of the Saka calendar that became mainstream in the Hindu-Buddhist culture. For example, the names of the Islamic month later disinkretisasi by Sultan Agung (Mataram Islam) into the Saka calendar system. Saka lunar calendar based on the Sun (similar to the Gregorian), while the Islamic calendar based on the circulation of the Moon. 

Sultan Agung in 1625 decreed the Saka calendar changes into Javanese calendar is heavily influenced Islamic culture. The names of months used is 12, same as the Hijri calendar (the Islamic version). Similarly, the names of months refers to the Arabic language Sura month (Muharram), Sapar (Safar), Mulud (Rabi Beginning), Bakda Mulud (Rabi 'End), Jumadilawal (Rabi'ul), Jumadilakir (Jumadil End ), Rejeb (Rajab), Ruwah (Sha'ban), Pasa (of Ramadan), Sawal (Shawwal), Sela (Dzulqaidah), and Large (Dhu al-Hijjah). However, still follow the lunar calendar daily Saka Saka daily calendar so that time the most widely used of the population. 

Besides the issue of division of the month, the Arab language was extended to structure vocabulary. Same with a number of Sanskrit who eventually recognized as part of Indonesian, a number of Arabic words were finally entered into the structure of Indonesian, which include:

Arabic is even more significant in the 18th century and 19 in Indonesia, where communities of the archipelago over can read Arabic letters rather than Latin. In fact, in this Dutch colonial period, currency Malay written in Arabic letters, Arabic Pegon, Jawi or Arabic. Arabic script is often still found on the tombstone inscription. 

Pesantren. One form of Islam that are culturally more systemic is boarding. Originally he said the possibility of "Shastri" which means "those who know the scriptures of Hindu religion" from the Sanskrit. Or, "apprentice" of the Java language, meaning "those who follow his teacher to go anywhere. This phenomenon has been developing real boarding before Islam arrived. Pesantren when it became a place of education and teaching of Hinduism. After Islam came in, material and process of education in the schools taken over by Islam. 

Pesantren essentially a dormitory traditional Islamic education. Students live together and learn the religious sciences under the guidance of teachers, known as Kyai. Dormitory students are in boarding school complex where the clerics live. In other words, schools can be identified with the five main elements as follows: huts, mosques, students, clerics, and the books klasik.7 

Regarding the significant role of this pesantren, Harry J. Benda said that Indonesian-style Islamic history is the history of civilization memperbesarkan students and its influence on religious life, social, and economic in Indonesia.8 Through this pesantren, Islamic culture was developed and adapted to local culture that developed around it. 

Mosque. The mosque is a place of worship for the Islamic circles. Mosques formed early post-penetration of Islam into the archipelago is quite different from that developed in the Middle East. Among these are, the absence of the dome at the top of the building. The dome was replaced with a kind of "Meru" ie pyramid arrangement (usually three levels or five) similar to the Hindu buildings. Banten Masjid has five lingkat Meru, while the Holy Mosque and Demak 3 levels. But in general, form a square building walls are the same as that developed in culture induknya.9 

Then, in Indonesia are usually not built minarets. The role of the tower is replaced by a drum or percussion that marks the entry of prayer time. After a drum or percussion sounded, start prayer calls are made. However, there is also a tower that was built like in the Holy mosque and Demak. Uniquely, the form of towers similar to the Hindu temple. Although the present form of the mosque which was built in Indonesia has been completed tower, but the buildings far in the past mosque still retain its local shape. 

Graveyard. The tomb is the location of a person's body dikebumikannya post died. After the influence of Islam, the tomb of an effect is no longer embodied in the form of temples, but only just "cupola." Also, the body was interred at the site marked by a headstone. This grave marker is a form of application of Islam in Indonesia. Indonesia is not just a stone grave marker, but there are also carvings that marked the name of who is interred. 

Carving Art. The teachings of Islam (especially in Saudi Arabia) to ban the creation of animate beings in art. This prohibition was firmly held by the Islamic people of Indonesia. Instead, they actively create calligraphy and carving a "disguised". For example the form of leaves, flowers, hills, rocks, landscapes, and geometric lines. Included in it making Arabic calligraphy. Such carvings are in Mantingan Mosque near Jepara, Indonesia region which is famous for its art ukirnya. 

Literature. As the influence of Hindu-Buddhism, Islam also gives effect to the literary arts of the archipelago. Islamic-influenced literature is mainly grown in the area around the Straits of Malacca and Java. In the vicinity of the Straits of Malacca is a new development, while Java is a development of Hindu-Buddhist literature. 

Islamic writers perform a new composition-composition of Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Pancatantra. The result of this composition eg Tale of Five Pandava, Pandavas Tale of War Jaya, Hikayat Seri Rama, the Hikayat Maharaja Rawana, Hikayat Panjatanderan. In Java, there is literature that influenced long-Islamic literature such as Bratayuda, Fibre Rama, Arjuna Sasrabahu. 

In developing Malay sya'ir, Hamzah Fansuri composed mainly of mysticism (Sufism books that spread the problem.) Suluk who composed this Fansuri including sya'ir Boat, sya'ir The Bird Pingai, Asrar al-Arifin, and Syarab al Asyiqin.

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Referensi :

M.C. Ricklefs, Sejarah Indonesia Modern 1200-2004, (Jakarta: Serambi, 2008)
Supartono Widyosiswoyo, Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia, (Jakarta: Universitas Trisakti, Cet.2, 2006)
Jean Gelman Taylor, Indonesia: Peoples and Histories, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003)
Murray Gordon O’Hanlon, Pesantren dan Dunia Pemikiran Santri: Problematika Metodologi Penelitian yang dihadapi Orang Asing, (Malang: Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, 2006)
R. Soekmono, Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 3, (Yogyakarta: Kanisius, Cet.19, 2008)

2 comment:

My Blog said...

hopefully Indonesian society, though distinct from beliefs, it is always peaceful course. amen

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